Volume XVI |

Conservation Status of Habitat Types of European Community Interest in the Alpine Biogeographic Region of Romania

Abstract: The Habitat Directive (HD) is the main strategy for nature conservation in the European Union aimed at stopping biodiversity loss. In this paper, we present the conservation status of those habitat types designated at the European level that occur within the Alpine biogeographic region (ALP) of Romania. The conservation status (CS) of habitats was assessed using data that were acquired as a result of the first national monitoring of species and habitats. This monitoring was completed during the 2007-2012 period following the mandatory requirements that arise from Article 17 of the HD to report the results to the European Commission in 2013. The ALP, which is one of the five terrestrial biogeographic regions that were demarcated within Romania on European criteria, comprises the Carpathian Mountains and covers an area of 46,800 km2. Following the official European methodology, all parameters were evaluated and combined to give the CS of each habitat type. The results show that, out of the 51 habitat types belonging to 6 classes that were identified of European Community importance within the Carpathian part of the ALP bio-region, only 17 habitat types occurred solely in the ALP bio-region. The conservation status of the habitat types was assessed as: ”Favourable” (FV) for eleven types (1 freshwater, 3 temperate heath and scrub, 4 natural and semi-natural grassland formations, 1 rocky habitat, and 2 forest habitats), ”Unfavourable inadequate” (U1) for four types (1 freshwater, 1 temperate heath and scrub, 1 Sphagnum acid bogs habitat, and 1 forest habitat), ”Unfavourable bad” (U2) for one (Sphagnum acid bogs type), and ”Unknown” (XX) for one (Calcareous fens habitat). These are results of the first national assessment in Romania of the CS of species and habitats protected by the HD and the first report to the European Commission.

Volume XVI |

Delineation of rural-urban fringe: a case study of Aligarh city

Abstract: Cities are dependent on their surroundings for their existence and growth. Having a rapidly increasing population, a city needs a huge amount of agricultural products for its sustenance. To a considerable extent, it depends on countryside for the supply of vegetables, milk, food-grains, fruits and labour. These commodities are not only brought from immediate surroundings but also from hundreds of miles away. Thus, the city covers a huge area of surroundings for getting their agricultural products. The frequency and intensity of services depends on linkages in terms of distance of a city with its countryside and the available nature of transport and communication. The characteristics and socio-economic development of a fringe differ from that of another. People do their recurring commuting to perform their daily activities and jobs from the margins of a city to its central part, where their offices and institutions are generally located. The villagers also travel daily to cater their socio-economic needs to neighboring towns and cities. Thus, cities work as centres of gravity for socio-economic, cultural and administrative activities which are truly representative of the countryside.
Aligarh city performs a variety of functions. It provides a number of services to its countryside i.e., health services, educational services, banking services and bus services and in return of which it receives some services from its surrounding areas i.e., supply of agricultural products and daily labour. The information on the basis of which the fringe zones has been delimited, have been collected through surveys and records maintained by the colleges and schools, telephone offices, commuters’ assembling points, banks, mandis and milk collection points. The five sets of determinants for delineating the rural urban fringe of the Aligarh city are spatial, economic services, occupational structure and demographic and housing character. Our main conclusion is that the expansion of the city mainly has a north and north-east direction, especially along bypass and national highways.

Volume XVI |

Houseless People in Kanpur City: An Exploratory Study

Abstract: The  author seeks to examine the status of population that ever lived/never lived in the shelter and houses possessed by their relatives, the frequency of chances to live in the shelter after months and years and their circulation between places of origin and Kanpur city, India. The study is based on primary source of data generated through a comprehensive field survey in Kanpur city carried out during 2012. The study reveals that more than four-fifth of the houseless population has lived in the shelter at least once in their whole lives for some time. Likewise, most of the relatives of the houseless population owned the houses and they are not houseless persons, but less than one-fifth of relatives were houseless too somewhere else in the country. Moreover, more than sixty percent of the houseless people have got the chance to live in the shelter either for some months in a year or for few years, while nearly fourty percent of the houseless persons have never got the chance to live in the shelter in their whole lives and are forced to live as permanent pavement dwellers.

Volume XVI |

The Ethno-creativity in the Pilot Centers in Romania and their Role in the Development of Cultural Tourism and the Educational Process

Abstract: The study aims to assess the role of ethno-creativity in the development of the local economy. Ethno-creative tourism comes in the support of those who want to discover the cultural values of certain ethnic groups by the usage of practices and products that create the sensation of crossing beyond space and time, or new links with traditional ethno-cultural elements through effective participation and learning. The geographical space of Romania has been analyzed using two pilot centers, where ethnicities can be identified in points of space, together with their creative possibilities and values, in an attempt to develop an ethno-cultural tourism. The research has been based on economical data at the level of the NEAC code- Classification of the activities in the national economy, as well as on data obtained from having confronted some representative samples: creative artists, tourists and resident population, analyzed by statistical methods. The partial results obtained underline the impact of this type of development, which may contribute to the increase of the complexity of the functional territorial systems where this type of tourism might implement. Cultural tourism based on creativity and traditional values contributes to the appearance of the economic multiplication effects. The development of the ethno-creative tourism may mean creating jobs within a period of economic crisis and relative social crisis. It can also be considered as a factor of cultural identity popularization, which plays an important role in promoting cultural diversity.