Volume XX |

Image of Hajduks and Uskoks and its role in formation of traditional sports and games as intangible heritage of Ex-Yugoslav area

Abstract: The history and cultural memory of hajduk’s and uskok’s movements in the Balkan territory are well-documented, and even became recognized as a part of tangible and intangible heritage through the Balkan region. The historical and cultural importance of those movements is mostly reflected in oral epic literature, toponomastics, and some local traditions and customs. The research aims to analyze the contexts of “hajduks and uskoks” heritage in the territory of former Yugoslavia (Serbia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Montenegro), and in particular, the reflections of cultural remains of those movements emphasized in oral traditions and traditional sports and games as intangible cultural heritage of the region. Special focus is placed on various traditional “hajduk games and skills” which were transmitted to the traditional sports events, and reflect great similarities on a regional level. This is confirmed by a comparison of selected events of the ex-Yugoslav area within different contexts. These events are perceived as part of living folk culture and sort of public memorialization of hajduk’s and uskok’s movements and historic battles, recently becoming a prospective element of intangible cultural heritage with international recognition (eg. Nevesinje Olympics, Alka of Sinj, Ljubičevo Equestrian Games, etc.). However, under the process of popularization and globalization, traditional folk sports and games became a sort of invented tradition under the process of commoditization and commercialization. The scopes and popularity of such sports events and traditions are limited and endangered, demanding more public attention, reaffirmation and support.

Volume XX |

Treehouse tourism: issues and way forward

Abstract: Tourism is a major global sector relevant for many economies, however it is also recognized that tourism brings various negative social, cultural, economic and environmental impacts. This is particularly the case of conventional/mass tourism. Different forms of so called – alternative tourism – are supposed to offset these negative impacts and to promote a more sustainable development. Treehouse tourism (TT) fits within these new sustainable and experiential trend. We must also recognize a grooving need to provide unique, specific travel and accommodation experiences by the tour operators and hoteliers, in order to be competitive with others. This, in turn, leads to an overuse of the term sustainable, in the situations which are not sustainable at all. Still, though the TT is widely recognized by world tour operators, the academic literature and associable debate on this topic is almost non-existent.
The present article focuses on specifics, gaps and challenges of TT from biological, social and environmental perspective. At the end, most remarkable recommendations are provided – including the general TT model. Because of lack of previous literature, debate and the comparable statistics, the paper should be considered more as a start of debate, than a comprehensive analysis.

Volume XX |

Sustainable tourism and community-based tourism in small islands: a policy analysis

Abstract: The importance of the tourism sector to Small Island Developing States (SIDS) relies on their “islandness”. Tourism contributes to its socio-economic development in many ways. However, their heavy dependence on foreign entities and expertise has encumbered processes that ensure greater local control, ownership, participation, and avoidance of leakages. Unshackling these dependencies is one of the biggest challenges faced by SIDS in their quest to self-determination and emancipatory futures. The article argues that new pathways and trajectories have to be found to induce the required change where sustainability and inclusivity become fundamental for self-determination, social justice, and a just tourism. The article suggests the establishment of specific island policies that support sustainability and Community-based Tourism (CBT). The suggestions also include the establishment of a regional CBT hub for Islands within a region. This article is a conceptual paper based on secondary data, journal articles, books and government documents.

Volume XX |

Heuristic Approach in Determining the Best Tourist Tours to Medieval Fruška Gora Monasteries in Serbia

Abstract: This study brings the results of comprehensive analysis aimed at finding the best tourist routes between twenty important tourism sites in Serbia: sixteen medieval monasteries at Fruška Gora Mountain, two other important monasteries in the area, and cities of Novi Sad and Belgrade as starting points of tours. Several travelling salesman problems are formulated and the shortest tours are found with the application of heuristic approach and genetic algorithm developed specially for this purpose. The best tour connecting all twenty sites of great tourist interest is firstly identified in strictly geographical terms by using GPS coordinates and orthodromic distances. This result, considered as the optimal in mathematical sense is not achievable in real circumstances, but can serve as target and be compared with any other solution obtained as if the touring all sites is made by car. In this study the distances between sites are based on node-to-node ground transportation infrastructure data downloaded from the Google Maps Service at Internet. Shortest tours respect topography of the area and can be used for planning tourist and other visits to monasteries and cities of national and international importance. The results of this study are considered as input to improvement of existing government policies affecting Serbian travel and tourism marketing. An approach is applicable elsewhere with open agenda for extensions and further improvements.

Volume XX |

Certification and promotion of sustainable tourism: consumers attitude towards EU Ecolabel

Abstract: The potential of ecotourism certification system has a promising development, considering increasing demands for environmentally friendly accommodation facilities for tourists on their vacations. The importance of the certification system and its impact or influence on the economic, social environment but also on the natural environment is a very big one. The opportunities offered by the certification activity are very wide, offering a number of advantages to the local communities, but also to the tour operators in the areas where such a system is implemented. That is why the standards regarding the ecological labeling have been developed and have been introduced in the national and regional systems of life cycle analysis of the products.
The goal of the paper is to highlight the current situation, possibilities and approaches to ecological certification in tourism in Romania and to bring to the fore some fundamental elements regarding the ecological label. To determine the current attitude of the Romanian consumers towards the ecological labeling of the products, an questionnaire was carried out. It focused on identifying the perception of Romanian consumers towards the ecological label and how it influences their buying behavior.
Based on the results of this research, we could observe the high level of notoriety of eco-labels among Romanian consumers, but also a nebulosity regarding the notion of eco-label, the uncertainty making its presence among our respondents.