Abstract: The present study has made a thorough investigation into the spatial clustering, trend, and intensity of multidimensional poverty in India between 2005–2006 and 2021. Data has been obtained from the global multidimensional poverty report [developed by the Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative (OPHI) and UNDP] and the national report of the Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) for 2021 [prepared by NITI Aayog] for India based on the NFHS-3 and NFHS-4 datasets. The study shows that, despite significant interstate disparities, multidimensional poverty in India has decreased from 0.279 in 2005–2006 to 0.118 in 2021. States like Bihar, Jharkhand continue to experience extreme multidimensional poverty. The study demonstrates that even though the intensity of poverty has remained relatively constant, the poorer states are significantly more advanced in reducing poverty than the nation’s wealthier states. This suggests a pattern of pro-poor poverty reduction. Besides the study explores indicator-wise deprivation of MPI among the states and it is witnessed that Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Tripura, and Bihar have made splendid progress in reducing deprivation in different indicators (antenatal care, electricity, drinking water, assets) of multidimensional poverty, while the magnitude of deprivation is acute in several indicators like nutrition, cooking fuel, sanitation, and housing in these states. Based on the analysis, the present study suggests that India should undertake target-based interventions in poverty-prone regions to reduce poverty.
Abstract: The present study deals with selected aspect of measuring the prevalence of female-based multidimensional poverty in upcoming township of Sehore Municipal Council (Sehore M.C.) with limited economic opportunities reflected in economic poverty as such. The female-based urban poverty is also reflected even in households which are not below poverty line (BPL) and households with higher female work participation, suggesting that not only economic factors are at play when discussing the high rates of female-based socio-economic deprivation in the study area.The parameters selected for this research were considered to be relevant for the evaluation of female-based multidimensional poverty given the local conditions. The study is based on the methodology of multidimensional poverty index (MPI) given by UNDP (2010) in which six domains including housing poverty, economic poverty, educational poverty, health poverty, lack of time for relaxation and lack of empowerment and decision-making power, are selected to evaluate female-based MPI. In order to bring out spatial variation in concentration of female-based MPI, seventeen congested and crowded localities across four wards with varying percentage population of females and female workers were surveyed. The results show that fifteen localities (88%) scores as multidimensionally poor on female-based MPI; one locality is severely poor; and one is vulnerable to multidimensional poverty. Out of the six analysed domains, the contribution of lack of empowerment and decision-making power domain are contributing the most to the female-based MPI (nearly 24%). The study concludes with the justification for selecting the indicators in evaluating the female-based MPI in new-urbanizing society in India along with area specific suggestions to tackle with existing problem of female-based urban poverty in Sehore M.C.
Abstract: The risk of severe illness or death from COVID-19 is associated with specific demographic characteristics or composition of the population within geographic areas, and the spatial relationship between these areas. The aim of this paper is to identify areas with a higher concentration of population vulnerable to COVID-19, relying on the concept of spatial dependence. Hence, we focus on the share of vulnerable populations using several salient proxy measures at municipality level data for Serbia. The degree of vulnerability at the municipality level was determined by hotspot analysis, specifically the Getis-Ord Gi* statistics. The results indicate heterogeneity in the spatial patterning and typologies of clusters across Serbia. This spatial heterogeneity reveals potentially differing degrees of risk across municipalities. The results can inform decision-makers in the fight against COVID-19 by helping to identify those areas with vulnerable populations that if exposed may stress the local health care system.
Abstract: The paper addresses the issue of the state border. It emphasizes the fact that the state border is a multi-component and multifunctional phenomenon. It was proved that a legally established and internationally recognized border acquires a sign of politicality. The political boundary is a holistic and dynamic phenomenon, inherent in the internal logic of development. The issues of functioning and institutional support of state borders were generalized. The influence of state borders on the development of border territories was revealed. A scheme for the development and integration of contact border areas has been developed. The factors of contact border regions development were studied, as well as the process of various types of regional socio-economic systems formation under the condition of the predominance of state border certain functions. The importance of the functioning of state borders and the development of border regions for the formation of various types of ties, the level of stability of the border and the formation of a political environment have been clarified.
Abstract: The aim of this paper is to analyse the changes of Local Labour Markets (LLM) in Spain from 2001 to 2011 of 11 population subgroups (gender, 4 activities, 4 sectors and general population). An algorithmic iterative process with N-1 steps is used to examine commuting data for the 11 subgroups and to trace LLM in both years by maximising the self-containment of jobs (number of jobs occupied by residents of the area and number of residents working in the same area) of the generated areas. Four indexes are calculated for each LLM, and the variation of these four indexes between 2001 and 2011 allows us to classify them as areas that change from areas with a surplus of jobs to deficit areas, or vice versa. The evidence indicates an increase in mobility, difference in the rates of mobility according to subgroup characteristics, and the conversion of surplus markets in employment to deficit markets. These trends give way to wider functional areas and lower levels of self-containment reflected in the length of the journey to work. This impacts quality of life, social cohesion, and the sustainability of the territories.