Volume XXII |

Structure and composition of mangrove vegetation in the Lakkang Delta and Lantebung, Makassar City, South Sulawesi, Indonesia

Abstract: As a type of coastal vegetation, mangroves are valuable, unique, and vulnerable. Mangrove ecosystems have a distinctive vegetation structure, which consists of several characteristics sequentially, such as trees, saplings, poles, and seedlings. This study aims to assess and monitor the structure and composition of mangrove vegetation in Makassar City, South Sulawesi. Field surveys were conducted to measure and monitor mangroves in two different areas, namely coastal areas and small islands. The highest mangrove density is at Station 2, which is 0.59 ind/m2, which is a river area. The station with the lowest density is at Station 1, which has a value of 0.23 ind/m2, which is a coastal area. Avicennia marina, Rhizophora apiculata and Acanthus ilicifolius were found to have the highest importance value index. Location 1 is the least stable because it only has the Avicennia marina mangrove species. Meanwhile, at location 3 (Lakkang Island, a small island), there are variations in the value of each index, although it is still in the low category. This means that in general, each research location has a less stable ecosystem. Furthermore, this study can contribute to conservation, biodiversity assessment, and sustainable mangrove ecosystem management strategies.

Volume XXII |

Assessing potential habitat suitability of vulnerable endemic species: a case study of Diospyros celebica Bakh and Rhyticeros cassidix

Abstract: Diospyros celebica Bakh and Rhyticeros cassidix are known to be associated in several locations in Sulawesi. Both of these species are endemic to Indonesia that live throughout the island of Sulawesi. Species Distribution Modeling using Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) is considered an alternative way to understand the potential area suitable for a species. Model predictions from MaxEnt for all species have an AUC value of 0.887 and 0.837. Suitable habitat for D. celebica Bakh in Central Sulawesi (Morowali Utara, and The southern coast of Banggai) and South Sulawesi (Luwu Timur, Luwu Utara, Toraja Utara, Barru, Pangkep, Maros, Sidrap, Wajo, Sidenreng Rappang, and Gowa). However, the suitable habitat for D. celebica Bakh and R. cassidix in the association is much smaller. Environmental variables that are considered important that influence the occurrence of D. celebica Bakh are Soil Types, especially soil types Dystric Fluvisols, Eutric Fluvisols, Or-thic Luvisols, Orthic Acrisols, Eutric Cambisols, rainfall, and bio13. While R. cassidix is affected by distance from roads, distance from settlements, and distance from rivers, based on actual data points and habitat predictions. Most of the suitable habitat for D. celebica Bakh and R. cassidix is estimated to be outside the conservation area, but the suitable habitat is estimated in 8 functional status conservation areas. These results can be used by the Government of the Republic of Indonesia, and the Ministry of Environment and Forestry for determination.

Volume XXII |

Protected areas as recreational zones for nearby cities – the case study of the city of Vršac

Abstract: The fast-paced life has led many people to practise more frequent and shorter trips to nature. City dwellers are particularly inclined to this. Protected areas (PAs), especially those in the vicinity of cities, provide a good opportunity for one-day excursions and nature-based recreation. The paper presents the results of research aimed at determining how many city dwellers in Serbia use the surrounding PAs for this kind of activities. On a random sample of 247 residents of the City of Vršac above the age of 15, the survey method, with the help of the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (descriptive statistics, Chi-Square Test and Kruskal-Wallis Test), confirmed the research hypothesis that the utilization of these areas for recreation purposes was insufficient. Based on this and four additional hypotheses that were tested, conclusions are drawn that will serve to define guidelines for the development of excursion tourism in the studied areas and enrich the scarce local scholarly literature on the utilization of PAs for recreation by the urban population.

Volume XXI |

Geodiversity Assessment by Application of Geoinformation Approach (on the Example of Golo Bardo Mountain, Western Bulgaria)

Abstract: Geodiversity is considered as a complex indicator of the abiotic environment. On the example of information about Golo Bardo Mountain (Western Bulgaria), the article emphasizes the need to develop methods for quantitative assessment of the geodiversity of an area to minimize the subjective nature of the assessment by defining clear criteria that can be quantified. The complex geodiversity assessment of the investigated area was made based on the analysis of lithology, soils, topographic features and drainage network. The analysis is done in a GIS environment. Topographic settings are analysed on the base of digital elevation model with a cell size of 30 m using Spatial Analyst Tools. The elevation model is used for calculating the terrain roughness, slope gradients and aspects of the slopes. Geological component is evaluated considering the petrographic composition of the area. The variety of the abiotic components is calculated by application of grid method (cell size 1000 x 1000 m), using Focal statistics tool, neighborhood type “Variety”. Fuzzy logic is suggested to be used for comparison of areas located in different regions and with different landscape conditions.The results of the geodiversity assessment show that most of the area of the Golo Bardo mountain has moderate geodiversity index. The method used in the article gives reliable results with minimal subjectivity, that can be used for assessment of the distribution of the geodiversity on a particular area and allow to compare different territorial units. The results obtained in the current study show good correlation between areas with high and moderate geodiversity index, and areas with high biodiversity values. The applied methodology and the visualization of the geodiversity index allow for easy understanding of geodiversity by a wide range of stakeholders, even non-geoscientists, and can be successfully applied in the planning of geotourism activities.

Volume XX |

Phylogenetic diversity and EDGE approach in conservation of birds of prey in Europe

Abstract: Biodiversity of our planet is rapidly eliminated, at rates much higher than ever observed in human history. The birds of prey, among others few groups of bird species in Europe, have the highest proportion of threatened and near threatened species per taxonomic group and also, 25% of birds of prey species are experiencing population decline. Today, more than never in our modern life, we have to fight for nature conservation. Our understanding of biological diversity has broadened due to the fact that the use of phylogenies in ecology is increasingly common. If our conservation efforts are directed to maximize the preservation of biodiversity in a broad sense, we have to think beyond species. If we treat the species as evolutionary units, and not like types, our conservation efforts will preserve not only the organism, but the organism capacity to responde to environmental changes. In this paper I aimed to highlight the importance of phylogenetic information in conservation of birds of prey species in Europe through the EDGE approach. This metric has been implemented to prioritise species, beeing the only global initiative to focus on conservation of threatened species with significant amount of unique evolutionary history. Using this approach in conservation, we can be more confident that we will have the potential to preserve more functional trait diversity than expected. The top five birds of prey EDGE species in Europe are: osprey (Pandion haliaetus), the black-winged kite (Elanus caeruleus), the egyptian vulture (Neophron percnopterus), the european honey-buzzard (Pernis apivorus) and the bearded vulture (Gypaetus barbatus), according their EDGE scores.