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Volume IX |

Ecoclimatic Indexes within the Oltenia Plain

Abstract: The Oltenia Plain represents an important agricultural region of Romania, which displays vast surfaces that can be properly cultivated if one takes into account the climatic restrictions that generates a series of dysfunctions. In order to underline the problems related to the aridization tendency within the region, as well as to determine the most adequate plants, there were calculated many indexes used in different agroclimatic and biogeographical studies. Thus, according to the processed data, the Oltenia Plain generally belongs to the steppe and forest steppe domain and, with regard to the cultivable plants, there are recommended the thermophilous and xerothermophilous ones, which can get good productions even in the pluvial-thermal conditions characteristic to the region. The thermal regime imposes itself through a slight increasing tendency because of the extremely high values registered in summer, while the pluviometric regime registers obvious fluctuations and a decreasing tendency. Consequently, the issue related to the aridization of the southern part of the Oltenia Plain is confirmed, an issue that is presently stressed by other factors, such as massive deforestation, destruction of the irrigation systems etc., which led to the reactivation of certain areas covered by sands. However, the partial results of the study do not sustain the idea of desertification in the area.

Volume IX |

Comparison between the Oltenia Plain and the Southern Dobroudja Plateau in Terms of Pluviometric Deficit

Abstract: The Oltenia Plain and the Southern Dobroudja Plateau are two regions located in the two southern extremities, namely the south-western and the south-eastern extremities of Romania, which display distinct climatic features imposed by multiple climatic influences. The climatic evolution, especially in the last three decades, and the regional manifestations of the climatic phenomena related to global warming induced significant changes within the mentioned regions. In this context, we mention the pluviometric deficit. In the present paper, we have analysed the pluviometric deficit (annual and the warm semester of the year) within the Oltenia Plain and the Southern Dobroudja Plateau registered in the last half of the century (starting with 1961). We made a comparative analysis. The significant differences clearly emphasize the aridization tendency of the regional climate. The paper is useful for climatologists, as well as for students, master and PhD students.

Volume IX |

The Determination of the Degree of Trophicity of the Lacustrine Wetlands in the Eastern Carpathians (Romania)

Abstract: The lakes over Romania’s territory are relatively uniformly distributed within most physico-geographical regions. A low density is specific to the West, where significant drainage works have been realized, while the highest density is characteristic to the North-East, with numerous ponds, registered since the 14th-15th centuries. Most of the lakes within the Romanian territory, especially those analyzed in the present study, are anthropic. Most of the natural lakes are small-dimensioned and they do not have a special ecologic or economic importance. Although situated in different physical-geographical conditions, the analyzed lakes are mostly included in the category of good waters from a qualitative point of view, and within the eutrophic, mesotrophic or hipertrophic category, from a trophic point of view. Because of the fact that most lakes are anthropic, it is obvious that they are artificially maintained at this stage. Most of the mountain lakes and those in the volcanic areas are ultra-oligotrophic and oligotrophic. The lacustrine wetlands in the mountainous units are relatively meagrely developed, as their distribution is limited by the morphology of the landforms.

Volume IX |

Particulate Matter and Nitrogen Dioxide in the Brussels Ambient Air. To What Extent Local Emission Reductions Need to Be Drastic to Enable Compliance with the EU Limit Values

Abstract: Over the past 40 years ambient air quality in Brussels improved significantly. This was especially true for sulfur dioxide, lead, nitrogen monoxide, carbon monoxide, benzene and Benzo a pyrene. With respect to the air quality objectives imposed by the most recent European directive on air quality, 2008/50/EC, two major problems remain: nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulates (PM10 and PM2.5). Although the air quality objectives are met at several measuring sites in Brussels, a thorough analysis of data shows that it will be impossible to become fully compliant, in due time, in all of the different urban environments. A comparison of the average concentration levels in the Brussels Capital Region with those in the surrounding regions, the interpretation of the average daily and weekly concentration profiles and some special observations (e.g. car free Sundays) make clear that drastic emission reductions will be needed if compliance is to be assured solely by measures on the local scale.

Volume IX |

Heavy Metals Identified in Airborne Particles During Weekend Periods in Brussels Urban Environment

Abstract: There has recently been growing interest in the study of atmospheric particulate matter, specifically towards improved understanding of the long-term transport and impact of different elements of the lithosphere on atmospheric pollution. Close to the ground level, a fairly thin layer of the lithosphere and atmosphere, on both sides of their interface, serves as the major platform for human life and activity. Both the lithosphere and the atmosphere are mutually responsible for sustaining their natural equilibrium.
Investigations related to the studies of atmospheric particulate matter are intended to provide information that is still required for the implementation and the eventual revision of European standard tolerance norms for environmental protection. To this aim, WHO (the World Health Organization) and the EU (European Union) Working Groups on airborne particles are requiring additional information in this field.
Airborne particles of heavy metals, especially in overdose, may harm population health in a long or a short term. Our objective in the present study is to describe and compare the presence of heavy metals in the Brussels atmosphere during three days periods including Saturdays, Sundays and Mondays and their possible effect on human health. The heavy metals were divided into three main groups for: “high dangerous elements” (Pb, Sb, Cd and As); “non dangerous and low dangerous elements” (Sn, Cu, Ti, Cs, Bi, Zr, W, Ag, V, Ni and Al) and “micro-elements” (Co, Zn, Mn, Mg and Cr).
This study has been carried out during the period extending from September 2002 up to October 2003.