Abstract: The Oltenia Plain represents an important agricultural region of Romania, which displays vast surfaces that can be properly cultivated if one takes into account the climatic restrictions that generates a series of dysfunctions. In order to underline the problems related to the aridization tendency within the region, as well as to determine the most adequate plants, there were calculated many indexes used in different agroclimatic and biogeographical studies. Thus, according to the processed data, the Oltenia Plain generally belongs to the steppe and forest steppe domain and, with regard to the cultivable plants, there are recommended the thermophilous and xerothermophilous ones, which can get good productions even in the pluvial-thermal conditions characteristic to the region. The thermal regime imposes itself through a slight increasing tendency because of the extremely high values registered in summer, while the pluviometric regime registers obvious fluctuations and a decreasing tendency. Consequently, the issue related to the aridization of the southern part of the Oltenia Plain is confirmed, an issue that is presently stressed by other factors, such as massive deforestation, destruction of the irrigation systems etc., which led to the reactivation of certain areas covered by sands. However, the partial results of the study do not sustain the idea of desertification in the area.