Human and economic geography

Volume XVII |

Post-communist Romanian migration patterns: dynamics and territorial perspectives

Abstract: The paper addresses a problem of great importance for Romania, that of the international migration that is in a continuous process of exacerbation after the collapse of the communist regime, but with important spatial differences. The analysis of the situation has led to the need for a series of spatial representations to highlight the typology and structure of migratory flows across the country in the post-communist period, as well as changes in direction or intensity. In almost three decades, more than 550,000 people emigrated from Romania, while almost 240,000 were temporarily abroad in 2017, according to official statistics, but in fact, their number is much higher. The international migration of Romanians has particular characteristics, with four distinct periods, characterized by demographic characteristics and specific territorial distribution. Overall, a mutation of emigrant areas from the west and centre of the country is noticeable after the fall of communism to the eastern and southern regions in recent years, with predominant involvement of young adults.

Volume XVII |

An evaluation of the human resources potential of the Western Region (Romania)

Abstract: The data analysed in the present study show that the human resources potential of the Western Region is limited in nature and characterised by disparities that are multidimensional from both the quantitative and the qualitative point of view. When we consider the region in terms of its administrative sub-units, we find areas that have human resources that are surplus to requirements but insufficiently developed and structurally unbalanced (Hunedoara county), others with high-quality but numerically limited human resources and with great potential for attracting them from other areas (Arad and Timiş counties) and a case of an area whose human resources are both insufficiently developed and deficient from a quantitative point of view (Caraş-Severin county).

Volume XVI |

Delineation of rural-urban fringe: a case study of Aligarh city

Abstract: Cities are dependent on their surroundings for their existence and growth. Having a rapidly increasing population, a city needs a huge amount of agricultural products for its sustenance. To a considerable extent, it depends on countryside for the supply of vegetables, milk, food-grains, fruits and labour. These commodities are not only brought from immediate surroundings but also from hundreds of miles away. Thus, the city covers a huge area of surroundings for getting their agricultural products. The frequency and intensity of services depends on linkages in terms of distance of a city with its countryside and the available nature of transport and communication. The characteristics and socio-economic development of a fringe differ from that of another. People do their recurring commuting to perform their daily activities and jobs from the margins of a city to its central part, where their offices and institutions are generally located. The villagers also travel daily to cater their socio-economic needs to neighboring towns and cities. Thus, cities work as centres of gravity for socio-economic, cultural and administrative activities which are truly representative of the countryside.

Aligarh city performs a variety of functions. It provides a number of services to its countryside i.e., health services, educational services, banking services and bus services and in return of which it receives some services from its surrounding areas i.e., supply of agricultural products and daily labour. The information on the basis of which the fringe zones has been delimited, have been collected through surveys and records maintained by the colleges and schools, telephone offices, commuters’ assembling points, banks, mandis and milk collection points. The five sets of determinants for delineating the rural urban fringe of the Aligarh city are spatial, economic services, occupational structure and demographic and housing character. Our main conclusion is that the expansion of the city mainly has a north and north-east direction, especially along bypass and national highways.

Volume XVI |

Houseless People in Kanpur City: An Exploratory Study

Abstract: The  author seeks to examine the status of population that ever lived/never lived in the shelter and houses possessed by their relatives, the frequency of chances to live in the shelter after months and years and their circulation between places of origin and Kanpur city, India. The study is based on primary source of data generated through a comprehensive field survey in Kanpur city carried out during 2012. The study reveals that more than four-fifth of the houseless population has lived in the shelter at least once in their whole lives for some time. Likewise, most of the relatives of the houseless population owned the houses and they are not houseless persons, but less than one-fifth of relatives were houseless too somewhere else in the country. Moreover, more than sixty percent of the houseless people have got the chance to live in the shelter either for some months in a year or for few years, while nearly fourty percent of the houseless persons have never got the chance to live in the shelter in their whole lives and are forced to live as permanent pavement dwellers.

Volume XV |

Demographic Development of Settlements in the South Banat County / District

Abstract: The demographic development of Vojvodina settlements takes place in accordance with the laws of the urbanization process, which is manifested in two phases: the first – after the Second World War until the beginning of the 80’s of the 20th century, which is characterized by a polycentric polarization, and the second – monocentric polarization, which is still present. Since the settlements leave a fundamental mark on the cultural landscape and are the main carriers of the functional organization and focal transformation of geospace, the paper analyzes spatial-demographic and functional determinants of development of the settlement network of the South Banat County (district) on the basis of quantitative and qualitative indicators.
The settlement network includes 94 settlements distributed on the territory of 8 municipalities: Pančevo1, Vršac, Kovin, Alibunar, Bela Crkva, Kovačica, Opovo and Plandište. The time period of the analysis and statistical survey of demographic components in the settlement network is observed through three inter-census periods, as follows: 1981-1991, 1991-2002 and 2002-2011. The analysis of demographic components has indicated that two poles of population concentration dominate within the network of settlements in this district: Pančevo (a sub-centre of the Belgrade – Novi Sad metropolitan area) and Vršac in comparison to other urban centres and the municipality centres.