Human and economic geography

Volume XX |

Linking smallholder fish farmers to output markets: the dominance of collectors in aquaculture of Tam Giang lagoon, Central Vietnam

Abstract: Market access plays an important role in increasing smallholder’s income; however, informal markets are typical in developing countries. Traders often dominate agricultural markets. In Vietnam aquaculture, collectors are important actors and act as an intermediary in linking farmers and buyers. This research aimed to explore and analysis the functions and the dominance of collectors in linking with smallholder fish farmers in Tam Giang lagoon, central Vietnam. The qualitative research is applied through 55 semi-structured interviews including smallholder fish farmers, collectors, wholesalers, retailers, officers of local government and second information from statistic data and reports. The research findings showed that linking of smallholder fish farmers to output market has dependence on collectors while all aquatic products have to pass on collectors before distributing to next buyers. Collectors always have strategies to maintain the relationship with smallholders and they always have an advantage status in aquaculture value chain. Collectors are also considered as a barrier of smallholder farmers to access potential marketing channels. Informal transaction and trust are characterized in the interaction between collectors and smallholders.

Volume XX |

How is COVID-19 reshaping temporary and circular labour migration: Serbia and North Macedonia perspectives

Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic has caused migrant workers worldwide to face numerous and specific challenges. This study aims to determine how the COVID-19 pandemic and its societal impact have influenced temporary and circular migrants from Serbia and North Macedonia. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 50 participants to gain a deeper understanding of their challenges and migration practices. Temporary circular labour migration from Serbia and North Macedonia are most intensive towards EU countries, which are geographically close and well-connected by traffic, and with which migrants have well-established migration ties. The results show that after the outbreak of the pandemic, respondents faced termination of employment contracts, reduced working hours and earnings. Most of the respondents returned and only a few found formal employment in the country of origin. Job-related impacts of COVID-19 on respondents are determined by temporary residence, a form of employment and the employment sector. Temporary and circular migrant workers from Serbia and North Macedonia involved in the essential sectors in EU countries are less likely to be severely affected by the economic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. The results suggest that temporary and circular migration schemes should be improved after the pandemic, in a way that is sustainable even in times of sudden changes. In that regard, in addition to considering the needs of the labour markets of countries of origin and destination, the needs and the rights of migrants, should be prioritized in common solutions.

Volume XIX |

Status of housing condition, household amenities and assets in rural-urban fringe of Faizabad city, India

Abstract: The main aim of this paper is to examine the effect of urbanization on housing conditions and access to basic amenities in rural urban fringe of Faizabad city. Food, clothing and shelter are the basic needs for the survival of human beings. Although food and clothing have their own importance, however, the need of better housing conditions cannot be ignored. The inadequacy of housing conditions affects the quality of life and social well-being. Rural- urban fringe generally has unique characteristics. The mixture zone is characterized by both traditional and new houses with all facilities. This study is mainly based on secondary sources of data collected from the village directory and housing listing tables from the census of India. The paper reveals that the overall better housing conditions and housing amenities exist only in primary fringe. Thus, this paper suggests some remedial measures for improving the overall housing conditions in rural-urban fringe of Faizabad city.

Volume XVIII |

Romanian born population residing in Hungary, 2011-2017

Abstract: Foreign citizens began to immigrate to Hungary following its democratic transformation. Ethnicity had a decisive role during this period: mostly people with Hungarian nationality arrived. Later, following Hungary’s accession to the European Union, global trends had an impact on the Hungarian migration networks: Hungary’s migratory source extended, and it was able to attract foreign citizens from greater distances.
Thus, two levels of international migration to Hungary are markedly separated: the impact of global migration and the movements from the countries of the Carpathian Basin to Hungary. Within Europe, the primary weight of neighbouring countries is linked to cross-border linguistic and culture relations. International migration to Hungary is characterised by short distances, and the majority of the immigrant population has Hungarian nationality or is native speaker of Hungarian.
Most immigrants to Hungary are arriving from Romania, so the aim of the article is to analyse the social, economic and demographic characteristics of the migrants according to their areas of birth.
Migration flows between the two countries have been territorially concentrated; one quarter of the movements between 2011 and 2017 took place between Central Hungary and the Central Romanian Development Region. In the choice of the new place of residence, in addition to the economic centre areas border regions also play an important role, which can partly be explained by the phenomenon of circular migration, and partly by the easier interaction with those family members who have remained home.

Volume XVII |

Post-communist Romanian migration patterns: dynamics and territorial perspectives

Abstract: The paper addresses a problem of great importance for Romania, that of the international migration that is in a continuous process of exacerbation after the collapse of the communist regime, but with important spatial differences. The analysis of the situation has led to the need for a series of spatial representations to highlight the typology and structure of migratory flows across the country in the post-communist period, as well as changes in direction or intensity. In almost three decades, more than 550,000 people emigrated from Romania, while almost 240,000 were temporarily abroad in 2017, according to official statistics, but in fact, their number is much higher. The international migration of Romanians has particular characteristics, with four distinct periods, characterized by demographic characteristics and specific territorial distribution. Overall, a mutation of emigrant areas from the west and centre of the country is noticeable after the fall of communism to the eastern and southern regions in recent years, with predominant involvement of young adults.