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Environment

Volume XVII |

Application of Wireless Sensor Networks in Flood Detection and River Pollution Monitoring

Abstract: In this paper, we propose a system for river monitoring based on wireless sensor network (WSN) technology. This system consists of sensor nodes that periodically measure several environmental parameters such as flow rate, water level, rainfall and pollution level. Each type of sensor node has two threshold values and measured data is compared with them at the end of the reporting interval. Based on the current situation in WSN and measured data velocity sensors can use three different frequencies of reporting. Simulation of river monitoring system is done using Matlab software tool and the results of river mainte-nance during one WSN life cycle are presented. Two possi-ble hierarchical system architectures are considered and their performance is compared. The optimal system archi-tecture for this WSN application is discussed based on the obtained results.

Volume XVII |

The impact of human activities on the environment in the Romanați Plain (Romania), during the postcommunist era

Abstract: The purpose of the article is to present the impact of human activities on natural landscapes in the Romanati Plain. With the change of the communist regime, the form of ownership of the land has changed due to the disappearance of agricultural cooperatives. This has led to land breaking and changing the way it is used. By ccalculating some human environmental pressure indicators, based on statistical data, maps were made using GIS programs, which were then compared and interpreted, thus following the evolution of anthropic environmental impact during the period 1992-2017.

Volume XVII |

Modelling intact forest landscapes habitats quality at global scales through the use of landscape ecology methods

Abstract: Modelling intact forest landscapes (IFL) quality as habitats for various species represents a crucial aspect concerning wildlife conservation. Landscape ecology provides a rice pallet of metrics suitable for quantifying complex relationships between landscapes structure and function. Our research aims to conduct an ecological diagnosis of the 2013 non-altered IFL patches as optimal habitats for both edge and interior preferring species by taking into account their spatial adjacency to altered IFL patches by fire related and non-fire related causes between 2003 and 2013 through the use of the Edge Contrast Index Metric and the Core Area Index Metric. Our results evidence that none of the world geographical forest regions suffered potential ecological dysfunctions as habitats for either interior or edge dwelling species. However, the equatorial forest zones of Africa, America and Asia are characterized by alarming low levels of habitat quality which in the future can generate severe malfunctions.

Volume XVII |

Soil pollution prevention and control measures in China

Abstract: Soil pollution is a major problem in China. This paper de-scribes the policies that the government has undertaken to remedy the situation, by either preventing additional pollution, or reducing the existing pollution levels. First, China is honing the legal framework to protect arable lands, control sources of pollution, and assess, manage and clean up polluted sites. Second, the government has made steps to improve the identification and monitoring of pollution sources. Third, the government has promoted chemical and biological technologies to lower the level of soil pollution. In spite of these efforts, there are still considerable challenges. First, China has considerable economic, social, and environmental diversity, so uniform top-down designed policies are likely to face considerable problems in many areas. Second, the local institutions trusted with the soil pollution cleanup have little understanding about clean soil standards, the right technology for soil inspection and treatment, and the management strategies for vast areas of land. In addition, the costs of cleaning up the land are staggering, with estimates ranging from CNY 6 to 11 trillion, with little potential for cost recovery from soil rehabilitation.

Volume XVII |

Considerations on the Influence of Micro Urban Heat Islands to the Temperature – Humidity Index During July 2017 in Craiova City Centre

Abstract: According to the National Administration of Meteorology, July 2017 was the hottest July months in the last decade, with one of the longest period with canicular temperatures in the last decades, too. In many regions of Romania, including Oltenia and Craiova city, too, yellow or orange code warning had to be announced. To determine real thermal discomfort sensation felt by the population of Craiova city, experimental research concerning micrometeorological measurements of the real temperature and relative humidity that contribute to the local Temperature – Humidity Index (THI) value was performed. According to the experimental research results, confirmed by using thermovision too, in Craiova city centre, five micro urban heat islands (MUHI) were identified. For three streets and a public square, despite the small mean value of relative humidity, due to the temperature’s high mean value, in these hot spots the THI mean average was 89.97, and for this thermal discomfort sensation, special protection measures would be needed. The same air micrometeorological parameters in these four hot spots were compared with the ones recorded in English Park, where due to vegetation and trees’ shadow, the THI average was 84.11, thus the real thermal discomfort sensation would have made necessary adequate protection measures. In order to study the intensity and spatial pattern of the MUHI, thermal infrared remote sensing (thermovision) was used to observe the surface of MUHI as a complementary indicator of the thermal discomfort sensation with in MUHI. The paper presents relevant interdependence relationships between the near surface air temperatures and pavement/ buildings surface temperatures that have been found for MUHI in Craiova’s city centre. The paper proposes practical methods that could be used to decrease the pavements’ and buildings’ walls temperatures, thus contributing to the decrease of THI in the MUHI within Craiova city centre.