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Environment

Volume XVII |

Soil pollution prevention and control measures in China

Abstract: Soil pollution is a major problem in China. This paper de-scribes the policies that the government has undertaken to remedy the situation, by either preventing additional pollution, or reducing the existing pollution levels. First, China is honing the legal framework to protect arable lands, control sources of pollution, and assess, manage and clean up polluted sites. Second, the government has made steps to improve the identification and monitoring of pollution sources. Third, the government has promoted chemical and biological technologies to lower the level of soil pollution. In spite of these efforts, there are still considerable challenges. First, China has considerable economic, social, and environmental diversity, so uniform top-down designed policies are likely to face considerable problems in many areas. Second, the local institutions trusted with the soil pollution cleanup have little understanding about clean soil standards, the right technology for soil inspection and treatment, and the management strategies for vast areas of land. In addition, the costs of cleaning up the land are staggering, with estimates ranging from CNY 6 to 11 trillion, with little potential for cost recovery from soil rehabilitation.

Volume XVII |

Considerations on the Influence of Micro Urban Heat Islands to the Temperature – Humidity Index During July 2017 in Craiova City Centre

Abstract: According to the National Administration of Meteorology, July 2017 was the hottest July months in the last decade, with one of the longest period with canicular temperatures in the last decades, too. In many regions of Romania, including Oltenia and Craiova city, too, yellow or orange code warning had to be announced. To determine real thermal discomfort sensation felt by the population of Craiova city, experimental research concerning micrometeorological measurements of the real temperature and relative humidity that contribute to the local Temperature – Humidity Index (THI) value was performed. According to the experimental research results, confirmed by using thermovision too, in Craiova city centre, five micro urban heat islands (MUHI) were identified. For three streets and a public square, despite the small mean value of relative humidity, due to the temperature’s high mean value, in these hot spots the THI mean average was 89.97, and for this thermal discomfort sensation, special protection measures would be needed. The same air micrometeorological parameters in these four hot spots were compared with the ones recorded in English Park, where due to vegetation and trees’ shadow, the THI average was 84.11, thus the real thermal discomfort sensation would have made necessary adequate protection measures. In order to study the intensity and spatial pattern of the MUHI, thermal infrared remote sensing (thermovision) was used to observe the surface of MUHI as a complementary indicator of the thermal discomfort sensation with in MUHI. The paper presents relevant interdependence relationships between the near surface air temperatures and pavement/ buildings surface temperatures that have been found for MUHI in Craiova’s city centre. The paper proposes practical methods that could be used to decrease the pavements’ and buildings’ walls temperatures, thus contributing to the decrease of THI in the MUHI within Craiova city centre.

Volume XVII |

Estimation of drinking water supply and its future trends in Varanasi city, India

Abstract: The current study shows the estimation of drinking water supply, future trends and related issues in Varanasi City, India. Varanasi (from 25013’N to 25024’N latitudes and from 820 54’E to 830 04’E longitude) is one of the most important and historic city located almost in the Middle Ganga valley in the northern plain of India. For the convenience of civic administration, the city is presently divided into 90 wards and for the purpose of extending adequate and safe water supply facilities to the entire area, the city has been divided presently into 16 water supply zones of which 5 zones lie in the trans-Varuna area and the remaining 11 zones in the cis-Varuna area. The present work is based on the secondary sources of data which are obtained from Water Supply Department (Jal Sansthan), Nagar Nigam (Municipal Corporation) of Varanasi. In the first phase of the study, data pertaining to ward wise generation of water supply is collected from Water Supply Department, NNV (Nagar Nigam Varanasi). Informal focused group discussion, PRA (Participatory Action Research), and observation technique were applied to get the first hand information about the water supply scenario in the city. In the second phase of the study, Arc GIS 10.1 software was used to create maps for estimation of water supply management. The population growth in Varanasi from 2011 to 2041 is estimated to have a growth of 21% in 30 years at a rate of 2.25 % per year. This growth rate is considered in the model from 2011 to 2041 to predict the water demand in the city. The data was collected from various municipalities as per the office records. It is estimated that the amount of drinking water requirement forecasted for 2021, 2031 and 2041 is 0.49, 0.76 and 1.17 Billion liters per day respectively in Varanasi City. These data show that with an increase in population, the water demand is also increasing decade after decade. Increasing population growth rate, decreasing surface water resources, overexploitation of groundwater, deterioration of ground water quality and poor sewage treatment are the major water supply related issues in Varanasi city, India.

Volume XVII |

Indicators for evaluating the role of green infrastructures in sustainable urban development in Romania

Abstract: Urban green infrastructures are now considered key elements in improving residents’ quality of life and creating an appropriate framework for the development of sustainable cities. One of the most efficient method to evaluate the state and performance of urban green infrastructure is using different types of indicators. The indicators for evaluating the benefits, ecosystem services and the role of green infrastructures for the process of sustainable development represent important tools for decision and policy makers. Indicators provide information that can be easily interpreted by decision and policy makers and they facilitate the process of planning, monitoring and evaluation of green infrastructure in urban areas. The focus of our study is to establish which indicators are used for underlining the structural and functional diversity of urban green infrastructures. This paper aims to highlight the indicators and indices being used in Romanian urban areas for measuring their sustainability that include green infrastructures, in the wider understanding of the concept. Throughout the paper, different examples of indicators and indices are provided, emphasizing that by using the proper set of indicators and indices, city authorities can tag a sustainable development label for certain areas. However, an unbiased assessment using some sets of indicators and indices are not always providing unbiased or realistic outcomes.

Volume XVII |

Mapping spatial urban growth and land use change using geoinformatics technique in Varanasi District, Uttar Pradesh, India

Abstract: Urban growth is a worldwide phenomenon, but the rate of urbanization is very fast in developing countries like India. It is mainly driven by unorganized expansion, increased immigration, rapidly increasing population. In this context, land use and land cover change are considered central components in current strategies for managing natural resources and monitoring environmental changes. Uncontrolled momentum of urban sprawl and land use change raises many issues which might have both positive and negative effects. This sprawl can be effectively monitored using remotely sensed data from different dates by digital analysis of the imagery using change detection techniques.
The present study aims to examine the change in urban sprawl, land use/land cover (LU/LC) over a time point and assesses the pattern of sprawl through GIS technique. The geographical area of Varanasi district is 1535 sq.km including 1,371.22 km² rural area and 163.78 km² urban area, its population is 3,676,841 persons in 2011. It consists of eight blocks namely Baragaon, Pindra, Cholapur, Chiraigaon, Harahua, Sevapuri, Arajiline and Kashi Vidyapeeth. The spatio-temporal study of LU/LC as well as settlement is carried out for two time points 1990 and 2016. The data source used for analysis is Landsat MSS and Landsat OLI. The analysis mainly focused the urban growth along with landuse/landcover changes using digital image processing techniques like Maximum Likelihood Classifier algorithm for Supervised Classification and NDVI vegetation index. The trend of sprawl is notably higher in the urban centers than in the revenue villages.