Abstract: Although a country with a relatively small area, Romania has a variety of natural resources, which in time were favourable prerequisites to the development of processing activities. Most of these resources are not able to provide entirely the requisite, but cover parts of it in certain proportions. The territorial distribution of natural resources and the different cultural influences have fostered the development of certain regions or industrial centres of the country. The dynamics of the industrial exploitation of these centres has grown continuously, reaching a paroxysm in the centralised regime, when some of the resources have been largely exhausted. Rapid and often risky industrialisation, relying mainly on the basis of propaganda and not of economic efficiency has led to a falsely balanced development. New industrial structure, both territorial as well as sectorial has proven ineffective in the very first year of transition from the centralised system to the market economy.