Abstract: In this article, we provide a review of research that explores the extensive history of wildfires across Europe, focusing specifically on Romania’s territory. Lakes and peatlands serve as ideal sources for reconstructing charcoal fluxes resulting from vegetation burning. These natural resources are extremely sensitive to local environmental changes, and the deposition of allochthonous material is exclusively atmospheric. The analysis of macro-charcoal is the primary method for reconstructing local and regional wildfires. This article aims to emphasize the significant studies on paleofires, and the processing and identification methods of macroscopic charcoal particles, which include charcoal number, morphology, and CharAnalysis. The review of scientific achievements in Europe and Romania provides valuable insights into these methods. We aim to investigate the potential of modern international paleofire databases, such as the Global Charcoal Database and Reading Palaeofire Database, which provide updated information on local and regional paleofire occurrences during the Holocene period. We will also make use of software tools that generate maps based on network data, such as VOSviewer Bibliometric Analysis, to visualize and study the wildfire in Romania. Furthermore, we will analyze the publications related to this topic that are available in the Web of Science database. We analyzed the results of paleofire studies in Europe and Romania to determine the primary research directions linked to fire reconstruction. Our review revealed that most of the study sites in Romania are in the Carpathians, particularly at higher elevations, followed by mid-elevation areas. However, lowlands have been less investigated up to this date.
Abstract: The present study has made a thorough investigation into the spatial clustering, trend, and intensity of multidimensional poverty in India between 2005–2006 and 2021. Data has been obtained from the global multidimensional poverty report [developed by the Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative (OPHI) and UNDP] and the national report of the Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) for 2021 [prepared by NITI Aayog] for India based on the NFHS-3 and NFHS-4 datasets. The study shows that, despite significant interstate disparities, multidimensional poverty in India has decreased from 0.279 in 2005–2006 to 0.118 in 2021. States like Bihar, Jharkhand continue to experience extreme multidimensional poverty. The study demonstrates that even though the intensity of poverty has remained relatively constant, the poorer states are significantly more advanced in reducing poverty than the nation’s wealthier states. This suggests a pattern of pro-poor poverty reduction. Besides the study explores indicator-wise deprivation of MPI among the states and it is witnessed that Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Tripura, and Bihar have made splendid progress in reducing deprivation in different indicators (antenatal care, electricity, drinking water, assets) of multidimensional poverty, while the magnitude of deprivation is acute in several indicators like nutrition, cooking fuel, sanitation, and housing in these states. Based on the analysis, the present study suggests that India should undertake target-based interventions in poverty-prone regions to reduce poverty.
Abstract: The study presents a detailed geomorphological characterization of the volcanic mountains of Transcarpathia. Materials of previous geological researches, including the Transcarpathian geological exploration expedition, supplemented by the results of our own field researches, are systematized. Based on the analysis of relief forms and taking into account geomorphological and tectonic factors, Vyhorlat-Gutyn morphostructure of the second order is divided into morphostructures of the third order: Poprychny, Antaliv-Synyatska, Velykyi Dil, Tupy and Oash, which in turn are divided into morphostructures of lower orders. The Mukachevo morphostructure of the second order is composed of the following morphostructures of the third order: Beregovo hills, Kosino-Biganski hills, volcanic remains (Shalanka, Chorna Gora). Based on a detailed analysis of the collected materials, it was determined that the main role in shaping the modern relief of volcanic mountains belongs to channel and temporary water flows and weathering processe; consequently, river valleys and weathering surfaces were formed, which are the most important morphosculptures. On the basis of morphological and structural-lithological approach, as well as own field research, a geomorphological map of the volcanic mountains mountains of Transcarpathia on a scale of 1: 100,000 was compiled.
Abstract: The relief of large coastal accumulative bodies, including cuspate spits, is an important subject in scientific and applied research. A characteristic feature of similar accumulative bodies is a shallow underwater part. The aim of this work is to study the shallow-island part structure of the Dolgaya Spit (the Sea of Azov) and to identify the natural mechanism that determines both the variability of accumulative body over short time intervals and the high stability of the geosystem as a whole. Digital elevation models (DEM) for the studied area were built on the basis of remote sensing data (Sentinel-2). It is established that the length of the shallow-island part is about 20 km. There are shelly shoals and islands with a complex configuration and relief. Sea level, the wind-wave regimes and the sediment load are the main factors that determine the dynamic equilibrium of the shallow-island part of the Dolgaya Spit and its relief. The Dolgaya Spit has distinctive features of a free accumulative body influenced by longshore sediment flow. The configuration of its surface part is characteristic of many cuspate spits formed by two sediment streams. But the shallow-island part develops under the influence of alternating transverse movements of water masses and waves from opposite sectors. The coexistence of signs of the near-shore bar and cuspate spit provides grounds for classifying the Dolgaya Spit not as a cuspate accumulative body (in particular as Azov-type spit) but as a separate type developing under joint action of transverse and longshore sediment flows.
Abstract: The current study focuses on the investigation of soil organic carbon in Technosols in Kula Municipality. It has several aims. There is a need of a provision of more data, regarding carbon sequestration rates in topsoils in plains that are formed in subhumid climatic conditions. Another aim is to check the comparability of the in-profile cultural layer with other ones that are built in different climatic conditions. Objects of the research are contemporary since buried soil horizons play a major part on the provision of essential ecosystem services. The characteristics of soil organic matter are determined by a chemical analysis of six soil samples in the laboratories of the Institute of Soil Science, Agrotechnologies and Plant Protection (ISSAPP) “N. Pushkarov”. The total carbon content is determined by the test of Turin and soil color is determined by Munsell Soil Color Charts (1975). Soil organic carbon values in topsoil vary from 670,000 tons/ha to 1,240,000 tons/ha. Organic carbon in the studied sites represents less than 1% of the soil sample. The study may be regarded as the first step in the assessment of Bulgarian Technosols and their role in the global carbon cycle.