Volume XXI |

Correlation between precipitation and orography – key element of the Spatial Decision Support System for Prevention and Management of Floods in the Firiza Basin (Northwest Romanian Carpathians)

Abstract: Research on the influence of relief on precipitation has been identified in many studies conducted locally, regionally or globally. However, the research on the area analyzed in the present paper is comparatively lacking. The surrounding mountain area we refer to is represented by the Someș and the Tisa watersheds. The present study focuses on analyzing the influence of the relief, i.e. of the altitude, slope orientation relative to the position of the Sun and the movement of air mass as a factor on precipitation and rainfall gradient. For that, datasets of daily precipitation recorded at 62 rainfall stations were used, as follows: 36 rainfall stations in Maramureş County, 19 rainfall stations in Satu Mare County, and 7 rainfall stations in Bistrița-Năsăud County. Precipitation data from rainfall stations located in the neighborhood of the study area were used in order to determine the influence of relief on frontal precipitation. The second purpose of the research was to determine if there is a correlation between precipitation and altitude. To this end, ArcGIS and Microsoft Office software were used. The results seem to confirm the major influence of the relief over the dynamic convection imposed to the air masses on ascending slopes, various average vertical precipitation gradients and differentiated distribution of rainfall. The present analysis and its results will highly contribute as an input element in a Spatial Decision Support System for Prevention and Management of Floods in Firiza Basin (North-Western Carpathians).

Volume XXI |

Geodiversity Assessment by Application of Geoinformation Approach (on the Example of Golo Bardo Mountain, Western Bulgaria)

Abstract: Geodiversity is considered as a complex indicator of the abiotic environment. On the example of information about Golo Bardo Mountain (Western Bulgaria), the article emphasizes the need to develop methods for quantitative assessment of the geodiversity of an area to minimize the subjective nature of the assessment by defining clear criteria that can be quantified. The complex geodiversity assessment of the investigated area was made based on the analysis of lithology, soils, topographic features and drainage network. The analysis is done in a GIS environment. Topographic settings are analysed on the base of digital elevation model with a cell size of 30 m using Spatial Analyst Tools. The elevation model is used for calculating the terrain roughness, slope gradients and aspects of the slopes. Geological component is evaluated considering the petrographic composition of the area. The variety of the abiotic components is calculated by application of grid method (cell size 1000 x 1000 m), using Focal statistics tool, neighborhood type “Variety”. Fuzzy logic is suggested to be used for comparison of areas located in different regions and with different landscape conditions.
The results of the geodiversity assessment show that most of the area of the Golo Bardo mountain has moderate geodiversity index. The method used in the article gives reliable results with minimal subjectivity, that can be used for assessment of the distribution of the geodiversity on a particular area and allow to compare different territorial units. The results obtained in the current study show good correlation between areas with high and moderate geodiversity index, and areas with high biodiversity values. The applied methodology and the visualization of the geodiversity index allow for easy understanding of geodiversity by a wide range of stakeholders, even non-geoscientists, and can be successfully applied in the planning of geotourism activities.

Volume XXI |

Usage of zeolite raw materials as natural barrier for conservation of nuclear waste

Abstract: The presence of manganese oxides and hydroxides forming thin crusts up to 4-5 mm thick, deposits and impregnations with black color was found in the pink-reddish clinoptilolite zeolites from the field works in the area of the Most deposit, Bulgaria. The aim of the present research is to study the zeolite raw material in the area of the deposit in order to determine the manganese mineralization. The presence of certain microporous minerals, referred to as octahedral molecular sieves (OMS) and octahedral layered materials (OL) will increase the value of the zeolite raw material from the deposit in order to use them as a sorbent of heavy metals and radionuclides to solve some ecological problems.

Volume XXI |

Associated impact of the COVID-19 induced lockdown on air quality of Kolkata Metropolitan Area (India)

Abstract: As a pandemic, COVID 19 spread worldwide in early 2020. Primarily densely populated countries had remained vulnerable due to this biological hazard. Many people were forced to stay home owing to nature of the disease and no respite. A nationwide lockdown was implemented in India for 29 days (March 24th to April 21st) of 2020 during the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic. During the nationwide lockdown, industries, transport, and other commercial activities were suspended, except for necessary services. During the entire pandemic situation, an affirmative impact was observed as the air quality was reported to have improved worldwide. The complete economic lockdown to check COVID-19, brought unforeseen relief from severe condition of air quality. An apparent, reduction in level of PM2.5 and Air Quality Index (AQI) was experienced over Mumbai, Delhi, Kolkata, Hyderabad, and Chennai.
Present work explores the various metrics of air pollution in Kolkata, West Bengal, India (imposed as a result of containment measure for COVID-19). The polluting parameters (e.g., PM10, PM2.5, SO2, NO2, CO, O3, and NH3) were chosen for seven monitoring stations (Ballygunge, Fort William, Victoria, Bidhannagar, Jadavpur, Rabindra Bharati, Rabindra Sarabar), which are spread across the metropolitan area of Kolkata. National Air Quality Index (NAQI) has been used to show pre-and during-lockdown air quality spatial patterns. The findings showed major changes in air quality throughout the lockdown period. The highest reduction in pollutants emission was observed for: PM10 (-60.82%), PM2.5 (-45.05%) and NO2 (-62.27%), followed by NH3 (-32.12%) and SO2 (-32.00%), CO (-47.46%), O3 (15.10%). During the lockdown, the NAQI value was reduced by 52.93% in the study area.

Volume XXI |

Urban public transport development in Poland in 2004-2020 Co-financed by EU: geography and disparities

Abstract: This paper deals with the projects in the field of urban public transport, which were implemented in Poland after its entrance to the European Union with financial support from the European Regional Development Fund, European Cohesion Fund, and Connecting Europe Facility instrument. These projects were classified by type of activities and main transport mode, and their geography across the country was considered. Urban public transport projects supported by the EU, no doubt, changed the face of a lot of Polish cities and towns in recent years. Despite this fact, they were distributed very unevenly throughout the country.