Evaporation and evapotranspiration in Romania
Abstract: Evaporation and evapotranspiration are two of the most important elements for achieving a comprehensive study of water balance components and of conceptual hydrological models, lately becoming parameters of great interest in research on climate change. This study can be used for determining of evaporation and evapotranspiration rates at micro-scale using indirect methods. The importance of this study consists in identifying the regions exposed to significant water release in terms of water evaporation and evapotranspiration, in order to improve the practices and methods of water reserve management nationwide. In Romania, the spatial distribution of the analyzed variables is, for the most part, determined by the relief, which constitutes the main factor that dictates the particularities of both the local and regional climate. Among the morphometric characteristics of the relief, altitude plays the most important role in the spatial conditioning of the analyzed parameters. The spatial distribution of evaporation and evapotranspiration, at annual, seasonal and monthly levels in Romania was made through the spatial interpolation method (Digital Terrain Model with a resolution of 30 m). The results of the analysis revealed the following aspects: on a multi-year period, evaporation in Romania ranges from 300 mm – 800 mm/year, with the highest values recorded in the south east of the country and the Danube Floodplain (over 1,000 mm/year), western part (over 800 mm/year) and the lowest values registered in the mountain areas (less than 400 mm/year). The values of evapotranspiration vary between 300 mm/year and 625 mm/year, with a maximum of over 650 m/year in the plains and a minimum of less than 300 mm/year in the mountains.