Volume XI |

The wind regime of Romania – Characteristics, trends and North Atlantic oscillation influences

Abstract: The present study attempts to develop a comprehensive perspective of the wind regime on the Romanian territory, focusing on the characteristics and tendencies encountered over the past 50 years, as well as on the NAO projection on it, using several data categories gathered from 167 meteorological stations. Based on the recorded multiannual averages and on the strong correlation (r = 0.87) established between altitude and wind speed in wind exposed areas, we created the map of mean (multi)annual wind speed. The highest aeolian potential corresponds to the Carpathians (7-10 m/s on the ridges and 3-7 m/s on the slopes and within valleys) and the Black Sea Shore (5-7 m/s); nevertheless, the two areas develop extreme values of the wind turbulence – maximum in the Carpathians and minimum in the coastal units. Tablelands in Moldova and Dobrogea, as well as the northern part of Bărăgan show ideal conditions for the development of aeolian parks (moderate and strong winds, low turbulences). On a country-size scale, the month with the highest mean wid speed is March, whereas August is the calmest one. For the first time, the map of resultant wind direction (DRV) was designed, expressing both the resultant wind orrientation and its intensity (high intensity = low directional variability). Concerning NAO, a negative correlation is observed between its indices and the wind speed (mean speed, frequency and intensity of the stromic events) at a multiannual and multidecadal scale. The correlation coefficients present high values in the extra-carpathian areas and small or moderate values in the intra-carpathian areas. The positive (negative) NAO associated with low (high) cyclogenesis over the Mediterranean area induce low (high) winds over the Romanian territory due to diminished (enhanced) frequency of cyclones reaching Romanian regions.

Volume XI |

Pollution of Soils by Heavy Metals from Irrigation near Mining Region of Georgia

Abstract: The main goal of our research was to study the composition, migration and accumulation of heavy metals in irrigated soils, plants and partially natural waters in Bolnisi district, Georgia (southwards of Tbilisi capital city), and to establish the possible sources of pollution and their impact on the environmental situation of the region. The contents of toxic elements in the irrigated soils adjacent to ore mining and processing enterprise were studied. All samples from soils and water were inspected with Perkin Elmer device with the use of atomic-adsorptive method.
There were identified different concentrations of heavy metals. Our research has shown that more than half of the territory is seriously polluted by copper and zinc. Some part of the area can be considered catastrophically polluted. Due to the technological process and practices, irrigations play a major role in polluting the soil, since the area is irrigated using the water from rivers where wastewaters from the enterprise are discharged.
Our study shows that pollutant heavy metals, first of all copper, zinc and manganese have active negative effect on the properties of soil, its composition and soil-forming processes. It is especially well represented in the deterioration of hydro-physical potential of the soil. Balanced correlation among solid, liquid and gas phases is disrupted. In the highly polluted soils, cementing processes take place and sharply increase bulk density of the soil. Thus, the porosity of the soil deteriorates and water permeability is critically low.

Volume XI |

Formal and legal aspects of the forest landscape design in Poland

Abstract: In the article possibilities of forest designing established on the basis of results of analyses of legal documents (acts and regulations) being in effect in Poland concerning spatial planning, nature conservation and forestry were presented. Achieved results allow to state, that issues concerning landscape approach are becoming more and more important in the realization of principles of the forest management led in Poland. In forests, amongst action associated with the necessity of the landscape protection, management and planning a need of reconstruction of tree stands, keeping all open areas in a natural or near-natural extent, limiting the area of total fellings, increasing the species diversity of ecotones are named. And so the possibilities of landscape design concern mainly culture and management aspects. Simultaneously a lack of many significant references to the scope of applied solutions in the area of forestry engineering was observed.

Volume XI |

Evaluating the Touristic Potential of Georgia’s Landscapes

Abstract: The main purpose of this study is to elaborate the methodology of evaluating the tourism potential of landscapes based on concept of the spatial-temporal analysis and synthesis of natural territorial complexes (NTCs). The object of the studies is whole territory of Georgia. For this purpose, a great number of statistical data, long-term field-work observations in different landscapes, cartographic and fund materials were used. All these data were grouped in accordance with three main factors, such as natural, social-economic and historic-cultural factors. Particular attention was paid to some issues: systematization of data accrued in branch-geographical and statistical sources, referring different branch-geographical data to the landscape units, estimation of main driving forces, functions and the degree of tourism potential, creation of landscape inventory and thematic mapping. The study is based on comprehensive analysis, which enables to define high and low potential of various landscape units and allows comparing the tourism potentials of landscapes with each other taking into consideration integrated parameter based on the multifactor analysis. The main features of uneven territorial distribution of tourism potential of Georgia’s landscapes have been revealed. The cartographic base of the work is the Landscapes map of Georgia on a scale of 1: 1,000,000 and 1: 500,000, where the landscape types, subtypes, genera, types of NTCs are shown. All these data were processed by means of GIS analysis, overlay procedures and series of the thematic maps was done.

Volume XI |

Characteristics of the urban settlements network in The Republic of Macedonia

Abstract: The objective of this paper is to analyze of the net-work of urban settlements in the Republic of Macedonia, their territorial dispersion and operability. The current situation and future perspectives of the urban development of the settlements (development of the current settlements and promising growth of some of the settlements into those with the status of a City) have been analyzed. This issue has been analyzed in order to point out the directions of the spreading of the population on the territory of the Republic of Macedonia, which at the moment has an unfavorable characteristic. The following economic-functional characteristics of the settlements have been analyzed: transportation availability, daily migrations and other criteria.