Volume XXI |

Characteristics of volcanic mountains morphostructure of Transcarpathia, Ukraine

Abstract: The study presents a detailed geomorphological characterization of the volcanic mountains of Transcarpathia. Materials of previous geological researches, including the Transcarpathian geological exploration expedition, supplemented by the results of our own field researches, are systematized. Based on the analysis of relief forms and taking into account geomorphological and tectonic factors, Vyhorlat-Gutyn morphostructure of the second order is divided into morphostructures of the third order: Poprychny, Antaliv-Synyatska, Velykyi Dil, Tupy and Oash, which in turn are divided into morphostructures of lower orders. The Mukachevo morphostructure of the second order is composed of the following morphostructures of the third order: Beregovo hills, Kosino-Biganski hills, volcanic remains (Shalanka, Chorna Gora). Based on a detailed analysis of the collected materials, it was determined that the main role in shaping the modern relief of volcanic mountains belongs to channel and temporary water flows and weathering processe; consequently, river valleys and weathering surfaces were formed, which are the most important morphosculptures. On the basis of morphological and structural-lithological approach, as well as own field research, a geomorphological map of the volcanic mountains mountains of Transcarpathia on a scale of 1: 100,000 was compiled.

Volume XIX |

Gross chemical analysis of the turf and podzolic soils on glacial deposits, laid by dense carbonate rocks

Abstract: Gross analysis allows us to reveal issues concerning the genesis of soils and to identify the peculiarities of elementary soil processes. The article summarizes the results of the study of gross chemical analysis of the turf and podzolic soils on alluvial and glacial deposits, laid by dense carbonate rocks. Features and relationships of oxides content in soils and soil-forming rocks are considered, that will make possible to justify important issues of the nature of these soils and to study the dependence of their natural properties with dense carbonate rocks.It is established that oxides of silicon, ferum, aluminum and calcium form the basis of gross chemical composition of the turf and podzolic soils on alluvial and glacial deposits, laid by dense carbonate rocks. The maximum content of the first component is observed in the upper humus-eluvial horizon (90–94%), aluminum and ferum oxides – in iluvial accumulative horizons, where their content in total is 7–15%. Calcium oxide content in soil profile of studied soils, naturally increases from 0.36% in the upper horizons to 0.95% in the transitional, and in the laid carbonate rocks its content can reach up to 35%. This confirms the fact that laid carbonate rocks have a significant influence on the flow of all soil elementary processes, and gross analysis confirmed the presence of carbonates in the entire soil profile, which could not be determined during field or macromorphological studies. Oxides of alkaline-earth metals are mainly accumulated in the upper humus horizons of all soils, their content decreases down the profile. Potassium and phosphorus oxides, although pliable to washing, however are delayed in the soil and included in the biological cycle and partially fixed in secondary minerals. The content of biologically important components such as P2O5, MnO, S, N in the upper horizons of the studied soils is closely related to the accumulation of humus.