Volume XIV |

Impact of Common Land Resources in Sustainable Regional Development: a Geographical Analysis

Abstract: India is an agricultural country where people’s livelihood is highly dependent upon their land resource. The increasing population has created immense pressure on the land resources of the country, specially the agricultural land. Due to the continuous fragmentation of land in time, the small landholdings have become economically non-viable for the poor farmers. There has been a regular increase in the agricultural inputs over the last decades. Thus, the benefits from agricultural practices have declined in time. In this situation, the marginal and small farmers in general and landless people in particular rely upon the local common land resources (CLR) to supplement their income and earning their livelihood.The CLR, being “accessible” to all and no one having any exclusive right upon them, are generally used in various ways for economic gains. The forests provide timber, various forest products especially firewood, the pastures support the livestock and the uncultivated and barren lands are utilized for construction of houses, poultry farms and animal husbandry. Various studies have revealed that they account for up to 16 to 50 per cent of the income of landless and poor farmers respectively. Due to “open access” and rampant use, the CLR are declining all over India in general and the Indo-Gangetic Plain in particular. The present study was undertaken to analyze the dynamics of CLR in the sampled district of Uttar Pradesh in the Indo-Gangetic Plain. The study reveals that there is a considerable decline in these resources during the last decades. The detailed analysis of CLR utilization and its social correlates testifies for its role in providing economic gains and livelihood to its users. Thus, the present study reveals the significance of common land resources in sustainable regional development.

Volume XII |

Impact of Livestock Rearing on the Socio-Economic Development in North India

Abstract: Livestock rearing not only helps agriculture and production of manure, but also the production of milk and meat. After the first and second Green revolution, the importance of livestock in India goes beyond the function of food production. It is an important source of draught power, manure for crop production and fuel for domestic use. Thus, by minimizing use of non-renewable energy, livestock make a positive contribution to the environment. Although crops and livestock are interdependent to a large extent, the latter constitute an important mechanism for coping with the risks of crop failure. In land-scarce economies, livestock provide livelihood support in terms of income and employment generation to the millions of landless and small landholder.The present study also tries to investigate the role of livestock husbandry in the socio-economic development of an agricultural district of north India. The study reveals that Mahamaya Nagar district has witnessed considerable change in livestock sector. The role of livestock in providing food, livelihood and ensuring sustainable cropping system is evident. Livestock rearing is mostly practiced by the unprivileged and the deprived social groups and it gives employment to the rearers. Thus, the study reveals the importance of the livestock rearing and its impact upon the development of the Mahamaya Nagar district.