Volume XXII |

A multi-temporal Landsat data analysis for land-use/land-cover change in the Northwest mountains region of Vietnam using remote sensing techniques

Abstract: Land-use change is one of the challenges that exacerbate environmental problems. Understanding the scope of land-use and land-cover change, past and present drivers and consequences is crucial for properly managing land resources. This study applies the supervised classification maximum likelihood algorithm in ArcGIS 10.8 software to detect changes in land use and cover in Hoa Binh city, Hoa Binh province, Vietnam using multimedia satellite data obtained from Landsat 7-ETM+, Landsat 5-TM and Landsat 8-OLI for the years 2000, 2010 and 2020 respectively. In addition, for each satellite scene we also applied spectral indices (NDVI-Normalized Differential Vegetation Index and NDWI-Normalized Differential Water Index) to classify and evaluate the change of LULC. The study area, located in the Northwest mountainous region of Vietnam, is classified into five land-use/cover classes: Agriculture, Forest, Water, Urban or built-up land and Bare soil or rock. The results reveal significant changes in the study area between 2000 and 2020. Accounting for the largest proportion of total area, the forest area has decreased from 243.20 km2 in 2000 to 217.40 km2 in 2020. Conversely, the urban/built-up land area has increased continuously for the last 20 years, from 9.31 km2 in 2000 to 13.27 km2 in 2010 and 51.80 km2 in 2020. Changes in land use and cover have severe environmental impacts, such as climate change, loss of biodiversity, deterioration of water availability and quality, and reduced crop yields. Therefore, appropriate measures must be taken to limit drastic land-use changes and harmonize environmental conservation and human livelihoods.