Changing dimensions of literacy scenario and their determinants in India: a geographical perspective
Abstract: The present study is attempted under four points. The first point discusses the regional trends and patterns of literacy rate by decades since 1951. The second examines the trends of literacy rate by inter-states and union territories in the study area during 1951-2011. The third observes the distribution pattern and male-female literacy differentials during 2011, while the fourth explains the factors which influence the literacy level in the study area. The study reveals that the total literacy of India increased from 18.33 per cent to 73.00 from 1951 to 2011. All the states showed positive growth in literacy rate, especially Kerala (93.91 per cent) and Mizoram (91.58 per cent) having the highest growth. The male (96.1 per cent) and female (92.1 per cent) literacy was found to be the highest in Kerala (96.1per cent). The present study concludes that lower gross enrolment ratio and high dropout rates are chief determinants of literacy in the study area. The study is based upon suitable statistical techniques to analyze the data. Finally, some suggestions have been given to enhance the level of literacy rate that may result into positive socio-cultural transformation.