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Various

Volume XIV |

Near surface thermal characteristics of alpine steep rockwalls in the Retezat Mountains

Abstract: The characteristics of the near surface thermal regime of two rockwalls with different aspect in the Retezat Mountains were investigated using two miniature thermistors. Three one-year (2012-2013; 2013-2014 and 2014-2015) rock surface temperature time series were available for the north facing rockwall, whereas only two seasons were analyzed for the south facing rockwall. The mean annual rock surface temperature (MARST) values were with 1.5-2°C colder on the northern rockwall compared with the southern steep bedrock face. Due to long daily exposure to sunshine, the south facing rockwall experienced more diurnal freeze-thaw cycles during the cold season compared to the north facing rockwall. Overall, the thermistor with a southern aspect recorded 40 and 55 more freeze-thaw cycles than the northern one. A greater number of effective freeze-thaw cycles were measured on the south facing rockwall. The maximum daily amplitude on the southern rockwall is three times higher than on the north-facing location (39.1°C compared to 13.6°C). Based on our findings it seems that the MARST values recorded on the shaded face of the steep bedrock suggest a quite likely absence of permafrost, whereas the MARST values at TPR indicate a quite certain absence of permafrost.

Volume XIV |

Changing dimensions of literacy scenario and their determinants in India: a geographical perspective

Abstract: The present study is attempted under four points. The first point discusses the regional trends and patterns of literacy rate by decades since 1951. The second examines the trends of literacy rate by inter-states and union territories in the study area during 1951-2011. The third observes the distribution pattern and male-female literacy differentials during 2011, while the fourth explains the factors which influence the literacy level in the study area. The study reveals that the total literacy of India increased from 18.33 per cent to 73.00 from 1951 to 2011. All the states showed positive growth in literacy rate, especially Kerala (93.91 per cent) and Mizoram (91.58 per cent) having the highest growth. The male (96.1 per cent) and female (92.1 per cent) literacy was found to be the highest in Kerala (96.1per cent). The present study concludes that lower gross enrolment ratio and high dropout rates are chief determinants of literacy in the study area. The study is based upon suitable statistical techniques to analyze the data. Finally, some suggestions have been given to enhance the level of literacy rate that may result into positive socio-cultural transformation.

Volume XIV |

Seismic loss estimates for buildings in Bucharest’s historic centre in case of another 1977 Vrancea earthquake

Abstract: As past seismic events showed, Bucharest (capital of Romania) can be significantly affected by another intermediate depth (or subcrustal) Vrancea earthquake. The 1940 (Mw 7.7) and 1977 (Mw 7.4) earthquakes put the number of casualties in Bucharest over 1600. Although most people and authorities are aware of the exposure, the mitigation actions are still improper and there is actually a very uncertain image of the current damage extent. The paper provides scientifically based answers, through quantitative earthquake loss estimation based on recently developed analytical methods, applied for buildings in the historic centre of Bucharest. The approach offers a relevant picture of the actual possible damage distribution after an earthquake similar to the 1977 event, in an area with heavy traffic and a high number of tourists. The Improved Displacement Coefficient Method used in this study relies on the description of structural behaviour within different limits due to specific ground motion parameters like spectral acceleration. The 358 buildings in the study area are assessed individually and specific vulnerability curves are assigned to each typology, based on height, construction year and material. The same classification as in the Near Real-Time System for Estimating the Seismic Damage in Romania is used. The results are evaluated in order to be further included in the system. In addition, an empirical loss assessment procedure reflecting the economic impact of the previously calculated situation was employed. Relevant maps for mean damage ratio and economic losses are presented and interpreted.

Volume XIV |

An object based building extraction method and classification using high resolution remote sensing data

Abstract: The increasing availability of the high spatial resolution satellite images has provided a new data source for building extraction. This paper proves the concept of object oriented classification using high-resolution satellite data (Cartosat-1 satellite data fused with IRS-1C, LISS IV data) for automatic building extraction using eCognition software. In this study, the overall accuracy of classified image is 0.94 and Kappa accuracy is 0.92. The producer accuracy for building, vegetation and shadow are 0.9745, 1.0 and 0.8999, respectively, whereas user accuracy for building, vegetation and shadow are 1.0, 0.9475 and 1.0 respectively. The classification overall accuracy is based on TTA mask (training and test area mask) and it is 0.98 and Kappa accuracy is 0.96. The producer accuracy for building, forest and shadow are 1.0, 1.0 and 0.7344, respectively and user accuracy for building, vegetation and shadow are 1.0, 0.9475 and 1.0, respectively.

Volume XII |

Pécs, a possible gateway city

Abstract: When Hungary’s borders were fixed after the World War I, Szeged and Pécs became towns managing the relations of Hungary with the countries in the south. In our paper we examine the factors that make Pécs suitable for the Southern intermediate role, and whether the goals and achievements of Pécs2010 European Capital of Culture programme series reinforced this position.
Pécs has an outstanding status among the Hungarian towns of county rank and it is the most powerful regional centre. Its opening towards the south, its multicultural composition, its institutionalised system of foreign affairs, and its roles in various cooperations contribute to the city’s success in fulfilling the “gateway” role towards the South-Western direction.