Volume XX |

Sustainable tourism and community-based tourism in small islands: a policy analysis

Abstract: The importance of the tourism sector to Small Island Developing States (SIDS) relies on their “islandness”. Tourism contributes to its socio-economic development in many ways. However, their heavy dependence on foreign entities and expertise has encumbered processes that ensure greater local control, ownership, participation, and avoidance of leakages. Unshackling these dependencies is one of the biggest challenges faced by SIDS in their quest to self-determination and emancipatory futures. The article argues that new pathways and trajectories have to be found to induce the required change where sustainability and inclusivity become fundamental for self-determination, social justice, and a just tourism. The article suggests the establishment of specific island policies that support sustainability and Community-based Tourism (CBT). The suggestions also include the establishment of a regional CBT hub for Islands within a region. This article is a conceptual paper based on secondary data, journal articles, books and government documents.

Volume XX |

Heuristic Approach in Determining the Best Tourist Tours to Medieval Fruška Gora Monasteries in Serbia

Abstract: This study brings the results of comprehensive analysis aimed at finding the best tourist routes between twenty important tourism sites in Serbia: sixteen medieval monasteries at Fruška Gora Mountain, two other important monasteries in the area, and cities of Novi Sad and Belgrade as starting points of tours. Several travelling salesman problems are formulated and the shortest tours are found with the application of heuristic approach and genetic algorithm developed specially for this purpose. The best tour connecting all twenty sites of great tourist interest is firstly identified in strictly geographical terms by using GPS coordinates and orthodromic distances. This result, considered as the optimal in mathematical sense is not achievable in real circumstances, but can serve as target and be compared with any other solution obtained as if the touring all sites is made by car. In this study the distances between sites are based on node-to-node ground transportation infrastructure data downloaded from the Google Maps Service at Internet. Shortest tours respect topography of the area and can be used for planning tourist and other visits to monasteries and cities of national and international importance. The results of this study are considered as input to improvement of existing government policies affecting Serbian travel and tourism marketing. An approach is applicable elsewhere with open agenda for extensions and further improvements.

Volume XX |

Certification and promotion of sustainable tourism: consumers attitude towards EU Ecolabel

Abstract: The potential of ecotourism certification system has a promising development, considering increasing demands for environmentally friendly accommodation facilities for tourists on their vacations. The importance of the certification system and its impact or influence on the economic, social environment but also on the natural environment is a very big one. The opportunities offered by the certification activity are very wide, offering a number of advantages to the local communities, but also to the tour operators in the areas where such a system is implemented. That is why the standards regarding the ecological labeling have been developed and have been introduced in the national and regional systems of life cycle analysis of the products.
The goal of the paper is to highlight the current situation, possibilities and approaches to ecological certification in tourism in Romania and to bring to the fore some fundamental elements regarding the ecological label. To determine the current attitude of the Romanian consumers towards the ecological labeling of the products, an questionnaire was carried out. It focused on identifying the perception of Romanian consumers towards the ecological label and how it influences their buying behavior.
Based on the results of this research, we could observe the high level of notoriety of eco-labels among Romanian consumers, but also a nebulosity regarding the notion of eco-label, the uncertainty making its presence among our respondents.

Volume XIX |

The Implications of the Sahel Security Crisis for the Development of Tourism Industry in Algeria

Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to illustrate how Algeria’s tourism industry has been hit by the political instability of the Sahel region countries in the 1999-2020 period, and how the Algerian decision-makers have responded to manage the subsequent adverse effects. The fundamental data used in this study were collected from a series of media reports, press releases and statistical sources in Algeria. Additionally, an important collection of secondary data from different sources was also used. The findings reveal that the Sahel security issues in Africa have had serious implications for the tourism industry in Algeria. The political instability of the neighbouring countries has made “security” the centrepiece of Algerian foreign policy. The study also shows that the Algerian security policy is based on a set of principles that are not changing over time, thus, it has not been flexible enough to respond to actual changes in the security situation. As a result, tourism has been locked in the country’s foreign policy, which unintentionally forces Algeria to abandon what could be one of the most powerful engines of economic growth.

Volume XIX |

Detection and characterization of an archaeological wreck site in Sunda Strait, Indonesia

Abstract: A number of shipwreck archaeological sites worldwide have underlined the importance of shipwreck localization and detection. Accidents that led to sinking are one of the possible causes of those shipwrecks. The shipwreck of MV Bahuga Jaya, which is located in the Sunda Strait, Indonesia could be such an example. A multibeam swath survey is a suitable technique to map the wreck location since it can produce high-resolution Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and backscatter imagery. Both the analysis of the bathymetry DEM and backscatter use visual examination. However, morphometric analysis of the DEM and texture analysis of the backscatter, subsequently combined with the machine learning classification, could give a preferable result in shipwreck detection and monitoring. In this paper, slope analysis of DEM bathymetry and texture analysis of multibeam backscatter imagery are presented. Those first-order textural features are used to carry out a Support Vector Machine (SVM) classification to separate between the wreck and non-wreck objects. A combination of SVM classification and slope analysis is investigated to detect the wreck location. Following that, K-means clustering is also performed to obtain the seabed characterization. Results indicate that the combination of machine learning and morphometric analysis can give a promising outcome in shipwreck detection. In addition, the result of K-means clustering reveals that soft seabed is more dominant than the hard seabed in the study area with 56.4% and 43.6% respectively. This study could play a role as a complementary tool to monitor and manage the shipwreck archaeological site location.