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Environment

Volume XIV |

Biourbanism – a solution for mitigation of urban climate. Case study Bucharest city

Abstract: As a living environment or biotope of the human species, urban structures must meet not only the economic, social and political rights of the people, but also their biological and neurophysiologic requirements. A new scientific approach to urban planning is biourbanism or organic urbanism, which considers the urban environment as being a hyper-complex living thing. From the scientific point of view, this approach opens the way to new scenarios for urban planning research. The aim of the study is to promote this modern concept of urban planning for Bucharest City in the context of its climate vulnerability. The objectives of our investigation are the following: analyzing the dynamic of climate conditions of the city, highlighting the weather risks for the population and devising scenarios for implementing the concept in Bucharest. The research methodology focused on the following: the discussion of conceptual framework based on specialty literature, the calculation of bioclimatic indices in order to assess the city’s vulnerability to climate conditions and the presentation of “biourban” improvement models applicable to urban fabric samples. The study reveals the vulnerability of Bucharest City in relation to the specific risks associated to the weather phenomena of the summer season (high temperatures and moisture deficit), as argument in favour of preparing implementation scenarios for biourbanism ideas.

Volume XIV |

Considerations on the influence of micro urban heat islands to the temperature – humidity index in Craiova

Abstract: According to National Administration of Meteorology, July month of 2015, will represent one of the longest periods with canicular temperatures in the last decades. In Oltenia region and in Craiova city, too, yellow or orange code warning, had to be declared. To determine thermal discomfort sensation felt by the population of Craiova, experimental research concerning micrometeorological measurements of the real temperature and relative humidity that contribute to the local Temperature – Humidity Index (THI) value was performed. According to the experimental research results, con-firmed by using thermovision too, within Craiova, four micro urban heat islands were identified. Despite the low mean value of relative humidity, due to the temperature’s high mean value, in these hot spots the THI average was 94.93, and the thermal discomfort sensation would have made necessary special protection measures. The same air micrometeorological parameters in these four hot spots were compared with the ones recorded in English Park where due to vegetation and trees’ shadow, the THI average was 84.87, thus the thermal discomfort sensation would have made necessary adequate protection measures. The paper proposes several practical methods that would be utilized in order to decrease the pavements’ and buildings’ walls temperatures, or to increase the vegetation surfaces that contribute to the THI de-creasing in the micro urban heat islands of Craiova city.

Volume XIV |

Change of land-use patterns in a suburbanized area: The Bucharest municipality as case study

Abstract: There were realized numerous geographical, sociological and economic studies with special regard to land use change on the territories around Bucharest Municipality. Our paper is focused on the dynamics of the spatial patterns of land use types in the post-socialist period at the level of first tier of administrative-territorial units (towns and rural communes). The boundaries of the study area were defined from the viewpoint of the rural-urban fringe approach. We applied methods of multivariate statistics and hierarchical agglomerative clustering in order to identify changes in the distribution and use of land resources. Our findings confirm previous achievements about uneven development of the Bucharest’s outskirts and provide more details with regard to changing land use patterns. Thus, we identified and confirmed the opposition between north and south, different spatial patterns of land use distribution between internal and external periphery of the study area. We believe that reducing these differences through a balanced economic development policy would generate development opportunities for both the capital city and settlements in its suburban area. In order to obtain better results, each of the resulted land use cluster requires tailoring of the general economic development policy to its specific needs.

Volume XIII |

Quality assessment indicators of surface waters and soils in the vicinity of the former sulfur mine in the Călimani Mountains

Abstract: A native sulfur mineralization was quarried out intensively for a period of almost 30 years in Călimani Mountains, the Eastern Carpathians. The waste resulted from this exploitation activity was stored in four waste dumps, while the residues resulted from the processing were disposed in a settlement pond. Although mining operations closed in 1997, the remains of the former sulfur mining are listed among the major pollutants in Romania.
The present paper intends to present a preliminary analysis and the current state of the impact of pollution of the former mining exploitation on different environmental factors, by assessing some quality indicators of surface waters and soils. Water and soil samples from different areas situated in the proximity of the former mine were collected and analyzed, performing pH, conductometric, turbidity, chemical and microbiological determinations.
The results of this study demonstrate that the pollutant potential of the former sulfur mining from the Călimani Mountains is still very high, a fact proved by the acidic pH of the surface waters and soil, high turbidity and conductivity of the water respectively by the high number of impurities detectable through a simple preliminary chemical analysis.

Volume XIII |

The environmental impact of arable land in a protected area of community interest. Case study: ROSCI0123 Măcin Mountains, Romania

Abstract: Plant cultivation activities represent the widest form of environmental agression at global scale. Their sustainability influences the stability of natural ecosystems at local, regional and global level. In this context, the aim of this study is to assess the sustainability of arable land in ROSCI0123 Măcin Mountains using the Pimentel- Eulenstein model. The model takes into account as input data various parameters characterizing the agricultural activities in the whole area occupied by six administrative units (mechanization, chemical treatment, irrigation etc.), this way assesing the energy efficiency and sustainability of crop plants. The results show that the exploitation of arable land in ROSCI0123 Măcin Mountains is done unsustainably in terms of energy efficiency, leading to a medium risk of affecting the valuable environmental components. Under these conditions, improved farming management is a key component in the management of ROSCI0123 Măcin Mountains.