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Environment

Volume XVII |

Estimation of drinking water supply and its future trends in Varanasi city, India

Abstract: The current study shows the estimation of drinking water supply, future trends and related issues in Varanasi City, India. Varanasi (from 25013’N to 25024’N latitudes and from 820 54’E to 830 04’E longitude) is one of the most important and historic city located almost in the Middle Ganga valley in the northern plain of India. For the convenience of civic administration, the city is presently divided into 90 wards and for the purpose of extending adequate and safe water supply facilities to the entire area, the city has been divided presently into 16 water supply zones of which 5 zones lie in the trans-Varuna area and the remaining 11 zones in the cis-Varuna area. The present work is based on the secondary sources of data which are obtained from Water Supply Department (Jal Sansthan), Nagar Nigam (Municipal Corporation) of Varanasi. In the first phase of the study, data pertaining to ward wise generation of water supply is collected from Water Supply Department, NNV (Nagar Nigam Varanasi). Informal focused group discussion, PRA (Participatory Action Research), and observation technique were applied to get the first hand information about the water supply scenario in the city. In the second phase of the study, Arc GIS 10.1 software was used to create maps for estimation of water supply management. The population growth in Varanasi from 2011 to 2041 is estimated to have a growth of 21% in 30 years at a rate of 2.25 % per year. This growth rate is considered in the model from 2011 to 2041 to predict the water demand in the city. The data was collected from various municipalities as per the office records. It is estimated that the amount of drinking water requirement forecasted for 2021, 2031 and 2041 is 0.49, 0.76 and 1.17 Billion liters per day respectively in Varanasi City. These data show that with an increase in population, the water demand is also increasing decade after decade. Increasing population growth rate, decreasing surface water resources, overexploitation of groundwater, deterioration of ground water quality and poor sewage treatment are the major water supply related issues in Varanasi city, India.

Volume XVII |

Indicators for evaluating the role of green infrastructures in sustainable urban development in Romania

Abstract: Urban green infrastructures are now considered key elements in improving residents’ quality of life and creating an appropriate framework for the development of sustainable cities. One of the most efficient method to evaluate the state and performance of urban green infrastructure is using different types of indicators. The indicators for evaluating the benefits, ecosystem services and the role of green infrastructures for the process of sustainable development represent important tools for decision and policy makers. Indicators provide information that can be easily interpreted by decision and policy makers and they facilitate the process of planning, monitoring and evaluation of green infrastructure in urban areas. The focus of our study is to establish which indicators are used for underlining the structural and functional diversity of urban green infrastructures. This paper aims to highlight the indicators and indices being used in Romanian urban areas for measuring their sustainability that include green infrastructures, in the wider understanding of the concept. Throughout the paper, different examples of indicators and indices are provided, emphasizing that by using the proper set of indicators and indices, city authorities can tag a sustainable development label for certain areas. However, an unbiased assessment using some sets of indicators and indices are not always providing unbiased or realistic outcomes.

Volume XVII |

Mapping spatial urban growth and land use change using geoinformatics technique in Varanasi District, Uttar Pradesh, India

Abstract: Urban growth is a worldwide phenomenon, but the rate of urbanization is very fast in developing countries like India. It is mainly driven by unorganized expansion, increased immigration, rapidly increasing population. In this context, land use and land cover change are considered central components in current strategies for managing natural resources and monitoring environmental changes. Uncontrolled momentum of urban sprawl and land use change raises many issues which might have both positive and negative effects. This sprawl can be effectively monitored using remotely sensed data from different dates by digital analysis of the imagery using change detection techniques.
The present study aims to examine the change in urban sprawl, land use/land cover (LU/LC) over a time point and assesses the pattern of sprawl through GIS technique. The geographical area of Varanasi district is 1535 sq.km including 1,371.22 km² rural area and 163.78 km² urban area, its population is 3,676,841 persons in 2011. It consists of eight blocks namely Baragaon, Pindra, Cholapur, Chiraigaon, Harahua, Sevapuri, Arajiline and Kashi Vidyapeeth. The spatio-temporal study of LU/LC as well as settlement is carried out for two time points 1990 and 2016. The data source used for analysis is Landsat MSS and Landsat OLI. The analysis mainly focused the urban growth along with landuse/landcover changes using digital image processing techniques like Maximum Likelihood Classifier algorithm for Supervised Classification and NDVI vegetation index. The trend of sprawl is notably higher in the urban centers than in the revenue villages.

Volume XV |

Volcanic Eruptions in South Europe and the Change of Carbon Dioxide Concentration – Case Study: “Moussala” Basic Environmental Observatory

Abstract: The volcanic eruptions are one of the most characteristic natural sources of CO2 in the atmosphere (IPCC, 1990, 2007). In order to study the effect of volcanic eruptions on the increased levels of CO2, we have used data from the Basic Environmental Observatory (BEO) “Moussala”, Bulgaria, for the period comprised between July 2007 and March 2015. The Carbon dioxide is not a health hazard gas and there is no established limit concentration by the Bulgarian and international law. In this study, we have accepted as extremely high values the values that exceed the 95th percentile of the distribution of the daily average values for the studied period. The days with exceeding CO2 concentration were analysed in terms of volcanic activity (Etna), which could affect the investigated area with the spread of air pollutants and also CO2. The simulations developed by the Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) Model are used in order to describe the trajectory and dispersion of pollutant and products from eruptions of Etna in the atmosphere. A synchrony between the occurrence of days with extreme high concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere in the region of BEO “Moussala” and eruptions of Etna volcano was established in most of the investigated cases.
The analysis of the results from BEO “Moussala” confirms the impact of the volcanic eruptions and Etna volcano, in particular, for the increasing of CO2 concentration in the atmosphere. On the other side, it was established that the activity of Etna is not the only factor which has impact on the concentration of CO2. More detailed analyses concerning not only natural, but also anthropogenic factors have to be done in the future in order to clarify the reasons for the increasing concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere (IPCC, 2014).

Volume XV |

The Assessment of Artificial Water Surfaces Regeneration in Stachinez Swamps Protected Area by Using Remote Sensing and In–situ Data

Abstract: The Satchinez Swamps, a remnant of the swamps once specific for Banat Plain, is an ornithological reserve since 1942 and the habitat of many protected bird species. Draining works conducted in the seventies affected the reserve by decreasing the water surface area. Thirty-five years later, hydro-technical works aiming to restore the former aquatic surfaces within the buffer zone were conducted. Thus, in 2005 a water delivery canal from the discharge canal of Satchinez reservoir towards Balta Mare was built. The objective of this study is to assess the efficiency of the hydrological works carried out in 2005 by using temporal analysis of some normalized difference indexes derived from satellite images, in relation to precipitation data (recorded at Timisoara meteorological station) as an indicator for wetland restoration. We used geospatial data from different time periods: historical maps (1953, 1962 and 1984), orthophotos (1963, 1970, 2005 and 2012), oblique airphotos (2004) and 38 Landsat satellite scenes (1984-2015), two images per year, for the dry season respectively for the rainy season. We noticed a slight increase of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) in Balta Mare and on the relict watercourse of Sicsău stream, which shows the expansion of reed and suggests an increase in soil moisture. During the dry season, for the period before the restoration works (1984 – 2004) there is a strong, very significant correlation between Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) and precipitations (r =0.7008, p = 0.0011). After 2005, this correlation no longer occurs (r = -0.1083, p <0.05), which demonstrates that precipitations are not the main water supply for Balta Mare anymore. For the 1984 – 2015 period, during rainy months the Modified Normalized Difference Water Index (MNDWI) indicate the presence of water in Balta Mare, but during the dry months, it demonstrates the lack of water which underlines the temporary character of this pond and confirms the field observations. We conclude that the restoration did not succeed in the rebuilding of the former water surfaces of Balta Mare, but has an effect in increasing the underground water level in this area followed by reed extension.