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Climatology

Volume XIV |

Evaluation of rainfall extremes. Northeast and West coast regions of India as case study

Abstract: The response of climate change is the increase in the frequency and intensity of extreme weather events. An attempt has been made to study the trends in heavy rainfall amount and the highest rainfall value in 24 hours over Northeast region (NER) and West coast region (WCR) of India with the period ranging from 1901-2009. A standard statistical analysis concludes that the majority of the stations in NER and WCR indicates increasing trend in annual and monsoon rainfalls. Further, the increasing trends in heavy rainfall were investigated and the associated synoptic conditions were identified. The study reveals that the increase in heavy rainfall over the WCR can be attributed to the synoptic systems namely monsoon trough, cyclonic circulation, depressions and lows.

Volume XIV |

Potential usage of met mast datasets for climatic parameters monitoring in Tulcea County, Romania

Abstract: In order to evaluate the potential usage of high-accuracy climatic data measured continuously in the frame of newly developed renewable energy facilities in Romania for real-time local scale monitoring of climatic parameters, we used 2 years (May 2009 – May 2011) of in-situ climatic datasets measured at 7 met masts locations in Tulcea County. Realization of detailed thematic climatic maps afforded a more focused view of the spatial distribution and of the local patterns for air temperature, relative humidity and pressure, wind speed, direction and energy in the frame of the study site. On the basis of these preliminary results, we emphasize the great potential of similar in-situ real-time measured data to be integrated in the future, together with the data provided by meteorological stations, into complex databases. Their usefulness emerges from their capabilities of being integrated in specialized web-GIS platforms for real-time or near-real-time monitoring of small spatial scale climatic parameters and of contributing to climatic models calibration, weather forecasting, feeding early warning systems for local climatic hazards or to rapid small spatial scale assessment of air pollutants dispersal following different scenarios of wind speed and direction. Further research and initiatives are necessary in the near future for the creation and implementation of these databases in order to become operational.

Volume XIV |

Biourbanism – a solution for mitigation of urban climate. Case study Bucharest city

Abstract: As a living environment or biotope of the human species, urban structures must meet not only the economic, social and political rights of the people, but also their biological and neurophysiologic requirements. A new scientific approach to urban planning is biourbanism or organic urbanism, which considers the urban environment as being a hyper-complex living thing. From the scientific point of view, this approach opens the way to new scenarios for urban planning research. The aim of the study is to promote this modern concept of urban planning for Bucharest City in the context of its climate vulnerability. The objectives of our investigation are the following: analyzing the dynamic of climate conditions of the city, highlighting the weather risks for the population and devising scenarios for implementing the concept in Bucharest. The research methodology focused on the following: the discussion of conceptual framework based on specialty literature, the calculation of bioclimatic indices in order to assess the city’s vulnerability to climate conditions and the presentation of “biourban” improvement models applicable to urban fabric samples. The study reveals the vulnerability of Bucharest City in relation to the specific risks associated to the weather phenomena of the summer season (high temperatures and moisture deficit), as argument in favour of preparing implementation scenarios for biourbanism ideas.

Volume XIV |

Considerations on the influence of micro urban heat islands to the temperature – humidity index in Craiova

Abstract: According to National Administration of Meteorology, July month of 2015, will represent one of the longest periods with canicular temperatures in the last decades. In Oltenia region and in Craiova city, too, yellow or orange code warning, had to be declared. To determine thermal discomfort sensation felt by the population of Craiova, experimental research concerning micrometeorological measurements of the real temperature and relative humidity that contribute to the local Temperature – Humidity Index (THI) value was performed. According to the experimental research results, con-firmed by using thermovision too, within Craiova, four micro urban heat islands were identified. Despite the low mean value of relative humidity, due to the temperature’s high mean value, in these hot spots the THI average was 94.93, and the thermal discomfort sensation would have made necessary special protection measures. The same air micrometeorological parameters in these four hot spots were compared with the ones recorded in English Park where due to vegetation and trees’ shadow, the THI average was 84.87, thus the thermal discomfort sensation would have made necessary adequate protection measures. The paper proposes several practical methods that would be utilized in order to decrease the pavements’ and buildings’ walls temperatures, or to increase the vegetation surfaces that contribute to the THI de-creasing in the micro urban heat islands of Craiova city.

Volume XIII |

Considerations on Desertification Phenomenon in Oltenia

Abstract: The paper analyses the desertification phenomena in Oltenia, which have been more intense after 1990. Significant references are also made to the overall aspect for the entire country. The droughty periods have different meteorological characteristics compared to the last century such as: their association with intense heat waves, intensity and important areas of extension. These were caused by stable and persistent anticyclonic regimes which affected most part of the European continent. The paper is a part of series of extended studies on climate variability in Oltenia (Bogdan and Niculescu, 1999, Bogdan and Marinică, 2007, Marinică and Marinică, 2010; Marinică, 2006, 2009). The paper is useful to students, master graduates and to all specialists in climatology.