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Climatology

Volume XV |

The Mediterranean Oscillation (MOI) and the Forest Fires in Romania in the Period 1986–2014

Abstract: The study examines the connection between the Mediterranean Oscillation (MOI) and the forest fires (the annual number of fires, the annual burned area and the average burned area per fire) in Romania in the period 1986–2014. Pearson’s correlation coefficient (R) was used for determination of the correlation connection. Two MOI datasets were used: MOI-1 (Algiers and Cairo) and MOI-2 (Israel and Gibraltar). Monthly, seasonal and annual values of MOI were used in the calculations. Results for the number of fires and MOI-1: the highest values of R (statistically significant at the level of p≤0.05) were obtained for April (–0.446) and June (0.423), and for summer (0.432). The annual burned area and MOI-1: the highest values of R (statistically significant at the level of p≤0.05) were obtained for April (–0.459), and for winter (0.406). The number of fires and MOI-2: the highest values of R (statistically significant at the level of p≤0.01) were obtained for June (0.556) and February (0.475), and for summer (0.507). The annual burned area and MOI-2: the highest values of R (statistically significant at the level of p≤0.05) were obtained for June (0.449) and February (0.439), and for summer (0.439). Results of the research could be used for the long-term forecast of forest fires in Romania. However, further investigations of the connection between forest fires and other climate indices are necessary.

Volume XIV |

The North Atlantic Oscillation Influence on the Climate and Flow Variability of the Lower Danube Valley, between the Towns of Olteniţa and Călărăşi, Romania

Abstract: As previous international research has identified, the large-scale NAO atmospheric circulation pattern dominates climate variability in the northern hemisphere. In this study we investigate the impact of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index on annual/winter precipitation and river flow regimes for a sector of the lower Danube Valley. An important goal was to test the relation between the NAO pattern and the occurrences of extreme events. We assume that precipitation variability and river flow are harder to assimilate into a modified anthropogenic environment as the situation of the Danube in the study area. During the communist regime, this valley sector was transformed from a wetland environment into a farming area.
Understanding NAO – rainfall and NAO – river flow relationships were based on monthly data in the time period between January 1977 and December 2010 for the NAO index, the river basin average precipitation over the Danube and the Danube river flow measured at Oltenita and at Calarasi Stations. Results showed that the large inter-annual variability in the precipitation regime and flows of the Danube is largely modulated by the NAO phenomenon. The four-time series in study are weak stationary, which means that the natural events vary moderately along a constant mean and the extreme events do not have the power to propagate, vanishing after few time steps.

Volume XIV |

Evaluation of rainfall extremes. Northeast and West coast regions of India as case study

Abstract: The response of climate change is the increase in the frequency and intensity of extreme weather events. An attempt has been made to study the trends in heavy rainfall amount and the highest rainfall value in 24 hours over Northeast region (NER) and West coast region (WCR) of India with the period ranging from 1901-2009. A standard statistical analysis concludes that the majority of the stations in NER and WCR indicates increasing trend in annual and monsoon rainfalls. Further, the increasing trends in heavy rainfall were investigated and the associated synoptic conditions were identified. The study reveals that the increase in heavy rainfall over the WCR can be attributed to the synoptic systems namely monsoon trough, cyclonic circulation, depressions and lows.

Volume XIV |

Potential usage of met mast datasets for climatic parameters monitoring in Tulcea County, Romania

Abstract: In order to evaluate the potential usage of high-accuracy climatic data measured continuously in the frame of newly developed renewable energy facilities in Romania for real-time local scale monitoring of climatic parameters, we used 2 years (May 2009 – May 2011) of in-situ climatic datasets measured at 7 met masts locations in Tulcea County. Realization of detailed thematic climatic maps afforded a more focused view of the spatial distribution and of the local patterns for air temperature, relative humidity and pressure, wind speed, direction and energy in the frame of the study site. On the basis of these preliminary results, we emphasize the great potential of similar in-situ real-time measured data to be integrated in the future, together with the data provided by meteorological stations, into complex databases. Their usefulness emerges from their capabilities of being integrated in specialized web-GIS platforms for real-time or near-real-time monitoring of small spatial scale climatic parameters and of contributing to climatic models calibration, weather forecasting, feeding early warning systems for local climatic hazards or to rapid small spatial scale assessment of air pollutants dispersal following different scenarios of wind speed and direction. Further research and initiatives are necessary in the near future for the creation and implementation of these databases in order to become operational.

Volume XIV |

Biourbanism – a solution for mitigation of urban climate. Case study Bucharest city

Abstract: As a living environment or biotope of the human species, urban structures must meet not only the economic, social and political rights of the people, but also their biological and neurophysiologic requirements. A new scientific approach to urban planning is biourbanism or organic urbanism, which considers the urban environment as being a hyper-complex living thing. From the scientific point of view, this approach opens the way to new scenarios for urban planning research. The aim of the study is to promote this modern concept of urban planning for Bucharest City in the context of its climate vulnerability. The objectives of our investigation are the following: analyzing the dynamic of climate conditions of the city, highlighting the weather risks for the population and devising scenarios for implementing the concept in Bucharest. The research methodology focused on the following: the discussion of conceptual framework based on specialty literature, the calculation of bioclimatic indices in order to assess the city’s vulnerability to climate conditions and the presentation of “biourban” improvement models applicable to urban fabric samples. The study reveals the vulnerability of Bucharest City in relation to the specific risks associated to the weather phenomena of the summer season (high temperatures and moisture deficit), as argument in favour of preparing implementation scenarios for biourbanism ideas.