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Volume XX |

Research regarding soil erosion and its effects in the Balota area, Dolj County

Abstract: The research presented in this paper was carried out during three years of study (2018-2020) and aimed at studying soil erosion and losses of humus and major macroelements (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium) based on the precipitation regime that produced runoff on the slope. The research was carried out on a stagnic vertic preluvosoil with a slope of 4%, with a moderate acid reaction and a medium supply of nitrogen and potassium, and weak supply of phosphorus from Balota de Sus area, Dolj County, comprising 3 crops practiced in the area: wheat, corn, alfalfa compared to the field black (uncultivated) and spontaneous vegetation (natural).
Following the researches, it was found that the most significant runoff on the slope was recorded in black fallow 471.98 mc/ha and corn 252.62 mc/ha, and the lowest were recorded in wheat 183.43 mc/ha and alfalfa 118.87 mc/ha (25.14% compared to the black fallow).
Soil erosion, or soil losses, recorded high values also in the case of corn cultivation 6.84 t/ha (39.42%) and in the case of black fallow 17.35 t/ha (100%).
The humus in the soil was lost in the largest quantities also in the corn crop 198.19 kg/ha (40.56%) and black fallow 488.58 kg/ha (100%) and in quite small quantities in the case of alfalfa 89.20 kg/ha (18.25 %).
Nutrients in the soil have been lost, both by runoff water on sloping soil and by eroded soil, with higher amounts lost through eroded soil.

Volume XX |

Local labour markets and mobility in Spain 2001-2011

Abstract: The aim of this paper is to analyse the changes of Local Labour Markets (LLM) in Spain from 2001 to 2011 of 11 population subgroups (gender, 4 activities, 4 sectors and general population). An algorithmic iterative process with N-1 steps is used to examine commuting data for the 11 subgroups and to trace LLM in both years by maximising the self-containment of jobs (number of jobs occupied by residents of the area and number of residents working in the same area) of the generated areas. Four indexes are calculated for each LLM, and the variation of these four indexes between 2001 and 2011 allows us to classify them as areas that change from areas with a surplus of jobs to deficit areas, or vice versa. The evidence indicates an increase in mobility, difference in the rates of mobility according to subgroup characteristics, and the conversion of surplus markets in employment to deficit markets. These trends give way to wider functional areas and lower levels of self-containment reflected in the length of the journey to work. This impacts quality of life, social cohesion, and the sustainability of the territories.

Volume XX |

Linking smallholder fish farmers to output markets: the dominance of collectors in aquaculture of Tam Giang lagoon, Central Vietnam

Abstract: Market access plays an important role in increasing smallholder’s income; however, informal markets are typical in developing countries. Traders often dominate agricultural markets. In Vietnam aquaculture, collectors are important actors and act as an intermediary in linking farmers and buyers. This research aimed to explore and analysis the functions and the dominance of collectors in linking with smallholder fish farmers in Tam Giang lagoon, central Vietnam. The qualitative research is applied through 55 semi-structured interviews including smallholder fish farmers, collectors, wholesalers, retailers, officers of local government and second information from statistic data and reports. The research findings showed that linking of smallholder fish farmers to output market has dependence on collectors while all aquatic products have to pass on collectors before distributing to next buyers. Collectors always have strategies to maintain the relationship with smallholders and they always have an advantage status in aquaculture value chain. Collectors are also considered as a barrier of smallholder farmers to access potential marketing channels. Informal transaction and trust are characterized in the interaction between collectors and smallholders.

Volume XX |

Spatial interlinkages of poverty determinants and social space of poverty in Hooghly District of West Bengal: a geographical perspective

Abstract: Poverty is generally regarded as an acute and multi-dimensional deprivation. As poverty is a complex phenomenon with multiple dimensions, no unique homogeneous criterion can be used for its measurement. Researchers and policy makers, therefore, try to collect or construct geographically disaggregated indicators that provide information about the spatial distribution of inequality and poverty within a country. The present paper tries to explore and analyze spatial interlinkages of poverty in Hooghly district with the help of Twelve indicators such as distribution of SC (Schedule Caste) and ST (Schedule Tribe) population, literacy rate, gap in male-female literacy, marginal workers, agricultural labourers, availability of drinking water, availability of electricity, latrine facility, access to banking services etc. The entire study is based on the secondary sources of data obtained from District Census Handbook (2011), District Statistical Handbook (2014), District Human Development Report (2011) etc. For measuring spatial intensity of poverty among the rural blocks of Hooghly district various statistical methods like Dimension index (Di), Kendall’s ranking co-efficient method, Composite Index (Ci), Standard Score (Z score) etc. have been used. As the determinants of poverty have its own linkages with evolving nature of society and space, in the second half of the paper, social location and the genesis of poverty in Hooghly district are also examined vividly. The spatial pattern of poverty and its interlinkages with poverty determinants show positive but differential impacts and it is observed that high intensity of poverty persist in three blocks namely Pandua, Goghat-I and Arambagh. The study also reveals that the severity of poverty is mostly concentrated amongst the lower strata of the society i.e. SC (Schedule Caste) and ST (Schedule Tribe) population because they have been deprived of getting different amenities to sustain their life and livelihood.

Volume XX |

Image of Hajduks and Uskoks and its role in formation of traditional sports and games as intangible heritage of Ex-Yugoslav area

Abstract: The history and cultural memory of hajduk’s and uskok’s movements in the Balkan territory are well-documented, and even became recognized as a part of tangible and intangible heritage through the Balkan region. The historical and cultural importance of those movements is mostly reflected in oral epic literature, toponomastics, and some local traditions and customs. The research aims to analyze the contexts of “hajduks and uskoks” heritage in the territory of former Yugoslavia (Serbia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Montenegro), and in particular, the reflections of cultural remains of those movements emphasized in oral traditions and traditional sports and games as intangible cultural heritage of the region. Special focus is placed on various traditional “hajduk games and skills” which were transmitted to the traditional sports events, and reflect great similarities on a regional level. This is confirmed by a comparison of selected events of the ex-Yugoslav area within different contexts. These events are perceived as part of living folk culture and sort of public memorialization of hajduk’s and uskok’s movements and historic battles, recently becoming a prospective element of intangible cultural heritage with international recognition (eg. Nevesinje Olympics, Alka of Sinj, Ljubičevo Equestrian Games, etc.). However, under the process of popularization and globalization, traditional folk sports and games became a sort of invented tradition under the process of commoditization and commercialization. The scopes and popularity of such sports events and traditions are limited and endangered, demanding more public attention, reaffirmation and support.