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Estimation of changes in land surface temperature using multi-temporal Landsat data of Ghaziabad District, India

Abstract: The rapid growth in urban population in India is seen to create an essential for the development of more urban infrastructures. Land surface temperature (LST) is a significant factor in many areas like climate change, urban land use/land cover (LULC), heat balance studies and a key input for climate models. The main objective of this paper is to examine multi-temporal land surface temperature (LST) and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) changes of Gaziabad district in Uttar Pradesh, India using LANDSAT satellite data in GIS platform. To compute the changes and relationship between Land Surface Temperature (LST) and Land Use Land Cover (LULC), Landsat LST data for the months of September of year 2000, 2011 and 2018 were used in this study. The LST has been estimated with respect to Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) values determined from the Red and Near Infrared bands. The Land Surface Emissivity (LSE) is retrieved directly from the Thermal Infrared bands. The present study focuses on ArcGIS Raster functions and Raster calculation using the LANDSAT in September, thermal Bands (10, 11 & 6). The output of this paper shows that the surface temperature was high in the barren and built up area whereas it is comparatively low in the thick vegetation and agriculture land. It is also recommended that in order to reduce the land surface temperature of urban areas, sustainable urban planning strategies that include increasing the vegetated areas and embracing other green initiatives such as urban forestry should be adopted.

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Detection and characterization of an archaeological wreck site in Sunda Strait, Indonesia

Abstract: A number of shipwreck archaeological sites worldwide have underlined the importance of shipwreck localization and detection. Accidents that led to sinking are one of the possible causes of those shipwrecks. The shipwreck of MV Bahuga Jaya, which is located in the Sunda Strait, Indonesia could be such an example. A multibeam swath survey is a suitable technique to map the wreck location since it can produce high-resolution Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and backscatter imagery. Both the analysis of the bathymetry DEM and backscatter use visual examination. However, morphometric analysis of the DEM and texture analysis of the backscatter, subsequently combined with the machine learning classification, could give a preferable result in shipwreck detection and monitoring. In this paper, slope analysis of DEM bathymetry and texture analysis of multibeam backscatter imagery are presented. Those first-order textural features are used to carry out a Support Vector Machine (SVM) classification to separate between the wreck and non-wreck objects. A combination of SVM classification and slope analysis is investigated to detect the wreck location. Following that, K-means clustering is also performed to obtain the seabed characterization. Results indicate that the combination of machine learning and morphometric analysis can give a promising outcome in shipwreck detection. In addition, the result of K-means clustering reveals that soft seabed is more dominant than the hard seabed in the study area with 56.4% and 43.6% respectively. This study could play a role as a complementary tool to monitor and manage the shipwreck archaeological site location.

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Assessment of spatial changes of land use/land cover dynamics, using multi-temporal Landsat data in Dadri Block, Gautam Buddh Nagar, India

Abstract: The present work aims at presenting certain important ob-servations on food and water security of the peri-urban environment, by considering field data and satellite image classification to understand the spatial change pattern of natural resources and its impact on agriculture and water resources. Gautam Buddh Nagar is considered one of the important urban areas of the National Capital Region (NCR), being associated with multi-functional activity; it continues to grow in terms of infrastructure and other urban activities and the numerous infrastructural projects and other anthro-pogenic actions in the area cause a rising pressure on water, agriculture, and human health. The Landsat satellite images from 2000, 2005, 2010, and 2016 were classified and used to obtain the Land use / Land cover maps of the area, in order to estimate and to understand the rate of change during the last 16 years. There are mapped the important land use classes, such as the agricultural land, the vegetation surfac-es, the built-up areas, the open land, and the water bodies. The results indicate the fact that during the 16 years taken into study, vegetation (2.26%), water bodies (1.65%), and agriculture (3.5%) undergone a major decline, while the built-up land displayed values increased around four times (from 3.39% to 12.26%). The results of the present work clearly showed that the large-scale changes in natural land cover affected the agriculture, as well as the surface and groundwater resources of the area.

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Delineation of rural-urban fringe: a case study of Uluberia municipality, Haora district, India

Abstract: In India, most urban centres are expanding very rapidly both spatially and demographically. This expansion refuels the process of urbanization and spreads urban characteristics to peripheral regions. As a result, the rapid growth and expansion of urban areas to its surrounding rural hinterlands fosters unplanned and haphazard development and makes the area even more complex. Over time, the distinction between rural and urban gradually disappears, so that a new type of structure would emerge in city outskirts which is characterized by mixed forms of land-use, socio-economic activities and termed as rural-urban fringe. The paper delineates rural-urban fringe of Uluberia municipality based on selected indicators of demographic structure and economic services. Urbanity Index and Composite Urbanity Index have been used for the delineation of rural-urban fringe. Four fringe zones of Uluberia municipality have been identified and termed by applying the Mean±Standard Deviation technique.

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Status of housing condition, household amenities and assets in rural-urban fringe of Faizabad city, India

Abstract: The main aim of this paper is to examine the effect of urbanization on housing conditions and access to basic amenities in rural urban fringe of Faizabad city. Food, clothing and shelter are the basic needs for the survival of human beings. Although food and clothing have their own importance, however, the need of better housing conditions cannot be ignored. The inadequacy of housing conditions affects the quality of life and social well-being. Rural- urban fringe generally has unique characteristics. The mixture zone is characterized by both traditional and new houses with all facilities. This study is mainly based on secondary sources of data collected from the village directory and housing listing tables from the census of India. The paper reveals that the overall better housing conditions and housing amenities exist only in primary fringe. Thus, this paper suggests some remedial measures for improving the overall housing conditions in rural-urban fringe of Faizabad city.