Volume XVIII |

Climate parameters relevant for avalanche triggering in the Făgăraș Mountains (Southern Carpathians)

Abstract: The climate conditions may contribute significantly to the generation of several hazards in mountain areas, such landslides, wildfires, flash floods and avalanches. This study examines the variation of the main meteorological parameters with impact on avalanche triggering conditions at Bâlea-Lac Meteorological Station. At the best of our knowledge, this is the first overview of the basic climate parameters which are potentially avalanche triggers in the Făgăraș Mountains (Southern Carpathians). The study is based on data from only one weather station (Bâlea-Lac) from the period 1979-2017, assuming it is consistently relevant from climatic point of view for avalanche occurrence in the area. The results demonstrate that the theoretical circumstances for avalanche triggering (e.g. snow pack, fresh snow or wind) can be captured. This paper briefly describes the nivologic monitoring system run by the National Meteorological Administration and emphasises its utility for avalanche forecasting and alerts.

Volume XVIII |

Tracing the development of weather radar technology in Romania and worldwide

Abstract: Almost 90 years from the radar invention, the radar technology has evolved enormously and today it presents itself as an instrument of great importance in various research areas (meteorology, aviation, astronomy, air-ecology etc.). The main objective of the article is to identify the periods of development at the global level and also in Romania, as well as to identify the technology of most operational weather radars today. The article is based on publications from international journals and scientific books, covering the period of 1930-2018. The overview presentation demonstrates the reasons today’s weather radar is a powerful tool for studies concerning the atmospheric precipitations prediction, wind speed and direction, rainfall risk assessment and implementation of weather forecasts. Knowing the technological development is needed for the construction of the new generation radar and for exceeding the actual limits with regard to the accuracy of the radar data and the limits of observation. The purpose of this article is to summarize the evolution of the weather radar, with emphasis on the first experiments carried out during the analogue and digital period.

Volume XVIII |

In search of the last remaining giants. Modelling the conservation potential of century old trees within the Continental and Steppic Biogeographical Regions of Romania

Abstract: The present paper aims to model the potential for conservation of some very large specimens of either indigenous or human introduced tree species located within the Continental and Steppic Biogeographical Regions of Romania, areas characterized by considerable natural diversity. Centuries of human intervention have resulted in the major replacement of the natural vegetation with semi natural forests in the highlands, pastures and permanent crops at the hills and arable land in the lower areas. The once pristine landscapes present numerous remains in the form of old trees, while other exotic introduced species are common. In order to assess their conservation potential, we applied an encyclopedically approach centered on numerous field observations, measurements, scientific literature research, historical maps analyses and discussions with locals. The results certify the existence of different species characterized by a medium and high potential for conservation. Some of them are the subject of numerous researches and possess favorable conservation status while many are poorly or virtually unstudied and not protected. Such findings are usable in complex domains, mainly biodiversity conservation, durable ecosystem management and ecotourism.

Volume XVIII |

Peri-urban livelihood dynamics: a case study from Eastern India

Abstract: An important development of the urban settlements during the last few decades has been the rapid expansion of the population and the built-up area into the administratively different suburbs and areas surrounding the large towns and cities. These areas suffer from the negative consequences of unplanned urban growth, associated land use changes, rapid social change and degradation of natural resources. Burdwan city is situated along the greater Kolkata metropolitan area and Asansol industrial area corridor. As a result, this city has experienced problems such as socio-spatial segregation, socio-economic and cultural gaps as well as uncontrolled land markets and the spread of informal development.
The present study examines the empirical findings of socio-economic transformation as a part of peripheral urbanization. For a better analysis, the livelihood asset index (LAI) and household quality of life index (HQLI) were determined. Livelihood asset index is analysed by considering four capitals i.e. physical, human, financial and social with 12 index components. Villages located nearby city have high index whereas far distance villages have a low index. Finally, it is concluded that as livelihood asset increases, the quality of life also increases in the peri-urban villages of Burdwan area.

Volume XVIII |

A Belief-Desire-Intention Agent-based procedure for urban land growth simulation. A case study of Tehran Metropolitan Region, Iran

Abstract: Urbanization, growth of urban areas, is a process that has been growing rapidly during the last two decades. This phenomenon affects aerobiological, economical, industrial, ecological processes, social control, and the family. Hence, the prediction of the urban area extent has an important role in the future decision of the municipality. Multi-Agent System (MAS) is a proper tool for simulation and modeling process, which has been used for solving different types of spatial and non-spatial problems. In this article, we use MAS for urban simulation in the rural area around Tehran, which is the most populated and the fastest-growing city of Iran. In this paper, the behavior of three groups of agents: environmentalist, industrialist, and resident are simulated. These three groups are the dominant and influential population in the formation of urban texture. In this research, the behavior of these three groups of agents is specified, according to a series of map layers, such as slope, aspect, soil type, distance of urban areas, roads, and so on. The Belief-Desire-Intention (BDI) architecture of agents is used for the simulation, which is defined based on some variables, functions, and coefficients. The simulation is carried out based on two different interaction scenarios: Rational and Nash-Equilibria. The future urban area is predicted by a combination of MAS and spatial urban area. To evaluate the proposed model, the comparison of the predicted area is made at different times and scenarios. The results of implementation in different scenarios show that the residents of the study area follow the Nash-Equilibria interaction with Kappa Coefficient accuracy of 0.8104.