Volume XVIII |

Romanian born population residing in Hungary, 2011-2017

Abstract: Foreign citizens began to immigrate to Hungary following its democratic transformation. Ethnicity had a decisive role during this period: mostly people with Hungarian nationality arrived. Later, following Hungary’s accession to the European Union, global trends had an impact on the Hungarian migration networks: Hungary’s migratory source extended, and it was able to attract foreign citizens from greater distances.
Thus, two levels of international migration to Hungary are markedly separated: the impact of global migration and the movements from the countries of the Carpathian Basin to Hungary. Within Europe, the primary weight of neighbouring countries is linked to cross-border linguistic and culture relations. International migration to Hungary is characterised by short distances, and the majority of the immigrant population has Hungarian nationality or is native speaker of Hungarian.
Most immigrants to Hungary are arriving from Romania, so the aim of the article is to analyse the social, economic and demographic characteristics of the migrants according to their areas of birth.
Migration flows between the two countries have been territorially concentrated; one quarter of the movements between 2011 and 2017 took place between Central Hungary and the Central Romanian Development Region. In the choice of the new place of residence, in addition to the economic centre areas border regions also play an important role, which can partly be explained by the phenomenon of circular migration, and partly by the easier interaction with those family members who have remained home.

Volume XVIII |

Estimating the tourist carrying capacity for protected areas. A case study for Natura 2000 sites from North-Western Romania

Abstract: The estimation of the tourist support capacity for three Natura 2000 sites located in North-Westerm Romania and the appropriate use of a quantitative methodology adapted to the current working techniques are the main objectives of this scientific approach. In this respect, parameters were determined for obtaining the physical carrying capacity, then the resulting value was modified by the coefficients related to the correction factors. They also consider CAV_NDVI, a factor reflecting the abundance of vegetation and the value of the NDVI spectral index at pixel level, used to quantify the state of vegetation health, as a measure of the ecological status of the sites. The obtained results highlight the sensitivity of the algorithms used for the correction factors and the possibilities of converting these results into elements with practical possibilities for the sustainable sites management.

Volume XVIII |

Analysis of geographic hierarchy from attributes of local government area in Nigeria

Abstract: Natural events and entities often create structure and as such exhibits scaling in their organisation in space and over time. Hierarchy is a common feature of natural and social systems. Analysis of the hierarchy could support a better understanding of the structure and the function of different places across a landscape, thus, informing better policy and interventions for sustainable development. The study examined the hierarchy in selected data at local government authorities (LGA) level. Population, road network, and boundary data were sourced, processed and analysed within ArcGIS Software to confirm agreement or otherwise with Zipf’s law and showcase the structure formed by these attributes across the LGAs in Nigeria. Head-tail break was adopted to identify the hierarchy within the datasets. Results showed that population, area, population density, and road density exhibits scaling. For population, area, population density, and road density there are 6, 5,4 and 3 classes across the LGAs. These classes represent natural and dynamic classification which are rooted in the data. Evidently, the results clearly indicate that there are more classes than the usually dichotomous classification which reinforces dualism in development. The geographic hierarchy formed by these properties gave an insight into the socio-eco-political landscape revealing the unsustainable pattern of development across the country. In conclusion, using natural classification rooted in empirical data is suggested as a better way to classify authorities thereby enhancing discussion in policy formulation to address such inequalities evident in hierarchy currently established.

Volume XVII |

Study of Landscape Evolution in North Koel River Basin, Jharkhand, India: Tectonic and Structural Implications Based on Hypsometric Analysis

Abstract: Hypsometry is widely used for inferring tectonic effects and erosion status of landscapes. Tectonics, structural inhomogeneity, lithologic differences, and climatic variations lead to topographic undulations discerned into discrepancies in the values. Hypsometric index (and curve), indicative of frequency distribution of proportional elevation with the respective proportional area, is used as a tool to describe characteristics of landscape morphology, lithological variability, and degree of fluvial dissection. Many workers have used to infer comparison of rates of erosion with tectonic uplift rates. However, there are many other factors reported to influence topographic undulations other than tectonics which lead to a variety of hypsometries. Morphotectonic index, hypsometric integral, calculated using digital elevation models (DEMs) in GIS environment has been widely used for inferring tectonic effects, status of erosion, and structural controls. The present study is conducted in the North Koel River basin. This river rises in the Ranchi plateau and joins the Son River a few miles north-west of Haidarnagar, is the right bank tributary of the Son River. Along its entire course of flow, North Koel river (260 km) flows through plateau region mostly formed of metamorphic rocks. Hence, structural control seems to be the primary control on the landscape evolution of this sub-basin. In this study, hypsometric integral (and curve) has been calculated for third order and upper order streams to look whether this morphotectonic index shows any sign of tectonic, structural, or lithologic control on the landscape evolution in the North Koel River basin.

Volume XVII |

Application of Wireless Sensor Networks in Flood Detection and River Pollution Monitoring

Abstract: In this paper, we propose a system for river monitoring based on wireless sensor network (WSN) technology. This system consists of sensor nodes that periodically measure several environmental parameters such as flow rate, water level, rainfall and pollution level. Each type of sensor node has two threshold values and measured data is compared with them at the end of the reporting interval. Based on the current situation in WSN and measured data velocity sensors can use three different frequencies of reporting. Simulation of river monitoring system is done using Matlab software tool and the results of river mainte-nance during one WSN life cycle are presented. Two possi-ble hierarchical system architectures are considered and their performance is compared. The optimal system archi-tecture for this WSN application is discussed based on the obtained results.