Abstract: The paper characterizes thermal and humidity conditions within one of the insufficiently investigated parts of Bulgaria from the climate point of view, namely the south-western slope of the Pirin Mountains. The initial data for the study (monthly temperatures and precipitation amounts) were obtained from our own meteorological monitoring station for the period 2013-2021, organized by the Department of Climatology, Hydrology and Geomorphology, Sofia University, Bulgaria. By the calculation of Mayr tetratherm (MT), monthly De Martonne aridity index (Im) and Compensated Summer Ombrothermic index (CSOi) the predominance of humid conditions in the studied area is established. There is a large inter-annual variability of the De Martonne aridity index and the Compensated Summer Ombrothermic index, which are more influenced by precipitation than air temperature in the middle part of the mountains. On the other hand, in combination with low precipitation amounts, high temperatures in recent years have contributed to the manifestation of arid features of the climate. The results of the study supplement the insufficient information about the bioclimatic characteristics of the Pirin Mountains and clarify the peculiarities of the climate in these mountains, which have two clearly distinguishable macroslopes with west-southwest and east-northeast exposure.
Abstract: Role of Green Open Space (GOS) is essential in creating a comfortable environment in cities. It is detected using a high-resolution satellite image, Planetscope-3A. This study aimed to classify landcover in Banda Aceh using a multispectral classification of Planetscope-3A image and to assess the applicability of Planetscope-3A image to identify GOS in Banda Aceh. The multispectral classification was used with a supervised classification-maximum likelihood algorithm that refers to normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) transformation to obtain eight landcover classes. Additionally, field observation was used to retrieve sample points determined by Stratified Random Sampling. The classification detected eight landcover classes comprising non-GOS objects (water, developed, barren) and GOS objects (trees, shrubland, herbaceous, wetland, and cultivated). The result was combined with 128 samples data of field, producing an accuracy of 76.036 % and a kappa value of 0.726. Landcover was dominated by developed class with 29.739 km2 or 53.6 % of study area total with an accuracy of 94.094 %. Furthermore, GOS in Banda Aceh included 19.589 km2 or 35.291 % of the study area, consisting of trees (6.863 km2, accuracy 79.396 %), Shrubland (8.216 km2, accuracy 59.413 %), Herbaceous (4.132 km2, accuracy 73.564 %), Cultivated (0.291 km2, accuracy 73.475 %), and Wetlands (0.088 km2, accuracy 70.185 %). This concludes that Banda Aceh has a sufficient area of GOS. The result of GOS detection using Planetscope-3A image with supervised classification-maximum likelihood algorithm could be reference data and recommendation in managing sustainable development in Banda Aceh.
Abstract: The study aims to identify the main gaps in conservation and proposes objectives in the management of protected areas. The physical characteristics of the protected area, the land use, the identification of current pressures and future threats are analyzed. Geomorphological and geological analysis is the component that highlights the correlations between relief and the distribution of habitat types. Among the features that make it unique in the Carpathian landscape, the protected area consists of a very rugged calcareous ridge with calcareous rocky slopes and chasmophytic vegetation, alpine calcareous grass-lands and a habitat of community interest consisting of forests with Larix decidua (the largest larch area in the Romanian Carpathians). The site is also home to a viable population of large carnivores (Ursus arctos, Canis lupus, Lynx lynx).
The main current pressures that are also mostly identified as future threats to the site are intensive grazing, the extension of access roads, poaching, creating of conditions for invasive species, reduction of habitat connectivity due to anthropogenic causes, antagonism with domestic animals, and off-road driving of the motor vehicles.
Future threats are anticipated due to growing forestry activities, with a negative impact especially by complete deforestation, which is favoured by the restitutio in integrum of forests to the private domain without any conditionality for those that lie within the protected natural areas.
Intensive grazing leads to grassland degradation (impoverishment in species, changes in plant association). Among the proposed conservation measures, we mention: strict control of grazing livestock and grazing period, payment of compensation for private forests with high conservation value, limitation of buildings and access roads in the high areas.
Abstract: Biodiversity of our planet is rapidly eliminated, at rates much higher than ever observed in human history. The birds of prey, among others few groups of bird species in Europe, have the highest proportion of threatened and near threatened species per taxonomic group and also, 25% of birds of prey species are experiencing population decline. Today, more than never in our modern life, we have to fight for nature conservation. Our understanding of biological diversity has broadened due to the fact that the use of phylogenies in ecology is increasingly common. If our conservation efforts are directed to maximize the preservation of biodiversity in a broad sense, we have to think beyond species. If we treat the species as evolutionary units, and not like types, our conservation efforts will preserve not only the organism, but the organism capacity to responde to environmental changes. In this paper I aimed to highlight the importance of phylogenetic information in conservation of birds of prey species in Europe through the EDGE approach. This metric has been implemented to prioritise species, beeing the only global initiative to focus on conservation of threatened species with significant amount of unique evolutionary history. Using this approach in conservation, we can be more confident that we will have the potential to preserve more functional trait diversity than expected. The top five birds of prey EDGE species in Europe are: osprey (Pandion haliaetus), the black-winged kite (Elanus caeruleus), the egyptian vulture (Neophron percnopterus), the european honey-buzzard (Pernis apivorus) and the bearded vulture (Gypaetus barbatus), according their EDGE scores.
Abstract: The research presented in this paper was carried out during three years of study (2018-2020) and aimed at studying soil erosion and losses of humus and major macroelements (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium) based on the precipitation regime that produced runoff on the slope. The research was carried out on a stagnic vertic preluvosoil with a slope of 4%, with a moderate acid reaction and a medium supply of nitrogen and potassium, and weak supply of phosphorus from Balota de Sus area, Dolj County, comprising 3 crops practiced in the area: wheat, corn, alfalfa compared to the field black (uncultivated) and spontaneous vegetation (natural).
Following the researches, it was found that the most significant runoff on the slope was recorded in black fallow 471.98 mc/ha and corn 252.62 mc/ha, and the lowest were recorded in wheat 183.43 mc/ha and alfalfa 118.87 mc/ha (25.14% compared to the black fallow).
Soil erosion, or soil losses, recorded high values also in the case of corn cultivation 6.84 t/ha (39.42%) and in the case of black fallow 17.35 t/ha (100%).
The humus in the soil was lost in the largest quantities also in the corn crop 198.19 kg/ha (40.56%) and black fallow 488.58 kg/ha (100%) and in quite small quantities in the case of alfalfa 89.20 kg/ha (18.25 %).
Nutrients in the soil have been lost, both by runoff water on sloping soil and by eroded soil, with higher amounts lost through eroded soil.