Abstract: The paper aims to determine to what extent the size of the rock glaciers (RG) in the Southern Carpathians (Romania) is influenced by their contributing area (CA) parameters. Simple linear regression (LR) and generalized linear models (GLM) were used to meet this goal, considering as independent variables the main morphometric characteristics of the contributing area. The LR coefficients revealed that the most influential variables were the width (R2=0.57) and the size of the CA (R2=0.51). Based on the best GLM results the size of the rock glaciers can be statistically explained quite well (R2=0.58) by a combination of three variables: CA length, CA width, and the minimum altitude of the CA. Rock glaciers are thus complex landforms resulting from a combination of many variables (climatic, topographic and geologic) including contributing area parameters. Both LR and GLM analysis revealed that the size of the rock glaciers can only be partly explained by the characteristics of the CA. The study revealed that GLM are powerful analytical tools which give reasonable results when analysing the role of rock glaciers developmental controls.
Abstract: The caves in Hungary have been protected for a long time. The current national legislation on nature conservation states that all known and unknown caves are under ex lege protection but the karst areas above them are not. The territories above the caves can be owned by the state but also some of them belong to private owners, thus a great diversity of economic activities are conducted on them. Anthropogenic activities endanger both directly and indirectly the caves environment and the karst ground waters. The damages and pollution of caves take place through the epikarst systems which are in direct connection with the topographic ground surface. Therefore, it is of special significance to emphasize the natural processes taking place in epikarstic systems as well as to analyze the changes within epikarst terrains caused by human impacts. The effects of human impacts on epikarst system in the area of the Tapolca karst were analyzed both by field and laboratory methods. The historical evolution of land cover and land use was assessed related to the impact on the abiotic elements (soil and karstic cover-deposit, water) in Tapolca area. The intrinsic vulnerability was assessed using the semi-quantitative COP Method. The results show high resource vulnerability in all analyzed epikarstic sites.
Abstract: In this article we analyse the evolution in time of extreme temperatures significant for Romania with a focus on absolute extreme temperatures recorded on the overall present territory. After thoroughly investigating the credible sources referenced at the end of the paper, we present in chronological order the records for absolute minimum temperatures, and absolute maximum temperatures which were measured at the meteorological stations on the present territory of Romania, according to the availability of the data, i.e. the last two decades of the 19th century up until 2017. We classify and discuss the sources of climatological data in the form of minimum and maximum temperatures. The measurements of meteorological parameters on the current national territory were recorded since 1770 at Iași (cf. Dissescu 1931 and also http://www.meteoromania.ro/anm2/despre-noi/istoric/ – page in Romanian as of 30.03.2017). For a systematic approach with credible data, at least another century passed, until Ștefan Hepites (1851-1922) founded in 1884 in Bucharest the Central Meteorological Institute of Romania (I.M.C. in Romanian) (Dissescu, 1931 and cf. the ANM web page quoted earlier). The newly created Institute did not include the meteorological stations which were present at that time in Transylvania, but only the ones on the official Romanian territory of 1859-1918 made up of Moldavia and Wallachia. This paper argues in favour of the process of global warming (GW) and its effects upon the evolution of extreme temperature values in a certain time interval. The conclusions stemming from the investigation of the dataset in this paper should provide a helpful and necessary point of departure in subsequent research of climatologists in their quest of identifying the correct model of future climate. Our article should be regarded as part of a series of analyses of the variability of the climate in Romania, the recent influence of global warming on it and on certain climatological parameters in particular.
Abstract: The present study aims at rendering the characteristics of the means of the daily maximum temperature at monthly, seasonal and annual level within the Romanian Plain, as well as their trends. The time series cover a 55-year period (1961-2015) and data come from 8 meteorological stations. In order to assess the distribution of the data, there were calculated two coefficients (Skewness – S and Kurtosis – K) and also applied the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test for normal distribution. The positive S values and negative K values indicate that the distribution is not symmetrical but, taking into account that the values are quite close to 0, we may assume, it is not far from normal. The KS test also indicates a normal distribution. Homogeneity of the annual temperatures was tested by means of Pettitt test, Standard Normal Homogeneity Test (SNTH) and t test, which emphasized that the change point was registered before 2000. At three stations (D.T. Severin, Bechet, Buzău) all three applied tests indicated the same year 1988, respectively 1989 as break point, while at the other stations, it is the same year according to SNHT and T test, and a different one based on MWP. Based on Mann-Kendall test and Sen’s slope estimation, there were emphasized temperature trends and their statistical significance. The highest temperature increase and upward trend was registered for mean annual and mean summer values (0.001 level of significance within the entire region). However, except for autumn, which is generally characterized by statistically insignificant negative trends, all the other seasons display significant upward trends. At monthly level, only the summer months registered upwards trends within the entire plain (level of significance oscillating between 0.05 and 0.001), while in autumn months there were not registered any statistically significant trends.
Abstract: Vertical electrical soundings (VES) and geophysical logs were employed to map and characterize the aquifer units in the Northwestern zone of Ijebu Ode, Southwestern Nigeria with a view to appraise the groundwater potential of the area. Sixteen Schlumberger soundings (VES) having maximum current electrode separation of 900 m were acquired and interpreted through partial curve matching and computer iteration. Gamma ray and resistivity logs acquired in a drilled hole were interpreted for aquifer characteristics. All but one sounding (VES 9), indicated signatures that are diagnostic of poor hydrogeological characteristics. Four layers were interpreted within 80 m depth. The first layer composed of topsoil (dry clay) which ranges in thickness from 0.8 to 1.5 m. Sandy clay (53 – 1895 Ωm) with varying thickness (0.8 – 34.5 m) constitute the second layer. Thick sand (2.4 – 55.3 m) having high resistivity (1208 – 7350 Ωm) make up the third layer. Resistive basement (3155 – 39529 Ωm) occurring at depth of 3 – 63 m constitute the fourth layer. The low resistivity sand (1023 Ωm) located beneath VES 9 was identified to be the saturated aquifer. The saturated aquifer has 8 – 10% clay content and 40% porosity. The aquifer is 100% saturated with fresh water having resistivity of 122 Ωm and TDS value of 53 ppm. This study showed that the area was of low groundwater potential and highlights the significance of combined surface and subsurface geophysical investigations for groundwater in area where groundwater occurrence is erratic.