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Volume XIII |

Research of water balance at hydrological micro-scale in the Aldeni experimental basin (Romania)

Abstract: The paper presents a number of aspects regarding the Aldeni Experimental Basin (Romania). In order to experimentally investigate micro-scale (plot scale) hydrological impact of soil erosion, the National Institute of Hydrology and Water Management founded, in 1984, the Aldeni Experimental Basin (AEB). AEB is located in the Curvature Subcarpathians, a region characterized by a sharp erosion of soil. Experimental investigations at a micro-scale are aimed towards: determining the parameters of the water balance equation, during natural and simulated rainfall; researching of runoff genetic and soil erosion processes on runoff plots; extrapolating relations involving runoff coefficients from a micro-scale to meso-scale.
Runoff plots have A = 80 sq m (20 x 4m), WNV-ESE aspect and an average slope of 5.6%; one runoff plot is maintained with grass, and the other is devoid of grass by digging (processing) and the structure of the first horizon with a depth of 20 cm has been changed, which resulted in a greater development of infiltration than in the first runoff plot. Complex measurements and sampling observations of the necessary elements for the quantitative estimation of the water balance equation are achieved with the help of specific equipment on standard climatologic and hydrological time (hourly and pentads) at hydrometric stations and meteorological platform, while at runoff plots scale per rainfall event.
Nowadays, the latest evolutions in data acquisition and transmission equipment are represented by sensors (such as sensors to measure the soil moisture). Exploitation and dissemination of hydrologic data is accomplished by: research themes/projects, yearbooks of basic data (Experimental Basins Yearbook) and scientific papers.

Volume XIII |

Conservation Status and Conservation Strategies of threatened aquatic fern Marsilea quadrifolia L. in Europe

Abstract: The aquatic fern Marsilea quadrifolia L is a rare and threatened species in entire Europe due to wetland habitats destruction and changing agricultural practices. To protect it, in situ and ex situ conservation methods are approached in European Union an in other countries. The in vivo and in vitro collections that were developed in botanical gardens in the last two decades are used for reintroduction and for restoration of M. quadrifolia populations in natural sites as well as in agro ecosystems that are analogous to natural habitats. Natural establishment of several M. quadrifolia populations in its natural range is an evidence that it can colonize new suitable habitats, including anthropogenic habitats. Despite conservation strategies approached within the European Union, its area of occupancy has decreased, thereby this species has become vulnerable at European Union level. The main threats are the small size populations, low genetic diversity and genetic erosion of populations, habitat degradation and chemical pollutions of waters by herbicides and fertilizers used in modern agricultural practice.

Volume XIII |

Geomorphological Risk and Denudational Index (Land Erodability) in Karstic Terrain of Anina Mining Area (Banat Mountains, Romania)

Abstract: Anina Mining Area was defined by Vasile Sencu in 1977 as the area that is surrounding Anina town and may be exploited by mining activities.
The aim of this paper is to present two parameters regarding geomorphometry in Anina Mining Area, naming here Geomorphological Risk and Denudational Index (Land Erodability Index). These two morphometric parameters are obtained using geomorphological parameters that we obtained in previous works, as slope, hypsometry, drainage density, depth drainage and morphodynamic potential. The methodology to derive Geomorphological risk and Denudational index (Land Erodability Index) is based on GIS techniques.
The results we obtained point out that the study area of this paper is a region where parameters such as geomorphological risk and denudational index have small incidence. This fact is due to the large homogeneous areas from the standpoint of geology and land cover, but also as an effect of large surfaces with a planar aspect as karstic plateaus.
From the analysis of these two parameters we must conclude that Anina Mining Area represents a space with small surfaces which are prone to risks associated with geomorphological process and also with small areas where denudation may have high rates due to the large areas where vegetation is present and also due to large plateaus where the primary processes are related to karstification, and these ones are very slow processes.

Volume XIII |

Quality assessment indicators of surface waters and soils in the vicinity of the former sulfur mine in the Călimani Mountains

Abstract: A native sulfur mineralization was quarried out intensively for a period of almost 30 years in Călimani Mountains, the Eastern Carpathians. The waste resulted from this exploitation activity was stored in four waste dumps, while the residues resulted from the processing were disposed in a settlement pond. Although mining operations closed in 1997, the remains of the former sulfur mining are listed among the major pollutants in Romania.
The present paper intends to present a preliminary analysis and the current state of the impact of pollution of the former mining exploitation on different environmental factors, by assessing some quality indicators of surface waters and soils. Water and soil samples from different areas situated in the proximity of the former mine were collected and analyzed, performing pH, conductometric, turbidity, chemical and microbiological determinations.
The results of this study demonstrate that the pollutant potential of the former sulfur mining from the Călimani Mountains is still very high, a fact proved by the acidic pH of the surface waters and soil, high turbidity and conductivity of the water respectively by the high number of impurities detectable through a simple preliminary chemical analysis.

Volume XIII |

Recent mutations in the social-economic structure of Dolj county’s population. Gender differentiations

Abstract: The article sets out to explain the changes that occurred in the social-economic structure of Dolj county’s population, taking into consideration the differences between the male and the female population. The present analysis is based on the processing and mapping a large amount of statistical data from the 2011 population census.
Identification and analysis of territorial imbalances were made on the basis of several significant indicators: the general activity rate, the economic dependency ratio, the unemployment share within the occupied population, the occupied population share in agriculture and other economic activities, the level of education of the active population.
The results of this research pointed out some significant differences between the urban and the rural areas of Dolj county, but also between the male and female population.