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Volume X |

Several Social Impacts of Mine Closures in the Disadvantaged Areas of Bihor County, Romania

Abstract: In the years that followed 1990, the mining regions from Eastern Europe addressed the same challenges: massive industrial closure, loss of traditional markets, high unemployment, price inflation and dramatic decrease in living standards. The authorities have promoted policies of economic and social development, in order to improve the areas seriously affected by industrial and mining decay, called “disadvantaged areas”. The disadvantaged mining communities from Bihor strongly anchored in historic mining activities, had to face a process of economic conversion, through the implementation of the socio-economic measures, hoping for sustainable regional development of those communities. The paper presents aspects from the history of mining activities in Bihor County, examining several social aspects of mines closure from these disadvantaged areas. The results of the study show that mine closures cause demographic changes, industry closing together with the disappearance of vital jobs, leading to population loss.

Volume X |

Land Use Change of the ‘Small Hobby Gardens’ in the Peri-Urban Area of Szeged, Hungary

Abstract: One of the main characteristics of the rural-urban fringe is the rapidly transforming hybrid landscape. This mixed land use is changing fast and is conspicuous since the early 1990s’ in Hungary. Before the transition, the development process was regulated and determined by the national government. In the post socialist transition, the market economy transferred the peri-urban areas to other context. The aim of this paper is to present how the rural-urban fringe of a post-socialist country has developed during different regimes among different conditions. Furthermore not only the different regimes among different conditions determine the transformation of the peri-urban area in post socialist countries, but also the special administrative and historical urban space is productive of other location and development ways than as usual. Thus, the second aim of this paper is to discuss how the regional (The Great Hungarian Plane) characteristics of the cities can determine the changes of the rural-urban fringe. The ‘small hobby garden’ is an important urban space of the peri-urban areas. They were created in the 1960s’. The gardens had agricultural and recreational functions. Before 1989 they were a significant part of the Hungarian economy and social life. People had their own land property and the owners could sell their grown vegetables during the socialism. After the transition the hobby gardens lost their roles, thus they are important ‘only’ in local. In the last one and a half decade the gardens have undergone various changes. The functions and the land use of the small hobby gardens have become wider. The rural-urban fringe zone of Szeged has more, various garden zones than it is usual in the Great Hungarian Plane. Thus, Szeged is suitable to present the development of rural-urban fringe, especially to present the transformation of the small hobby garden zones in Hungary.

Volume X |

Safety and Security in Tourism. Case Study: Romania

Abstract: For many countries, tourism is considered as having a great economic importance, with quite a large share in the country’s GDP. Hence, the number of foreign tourists is highly important. But worldwide, the threats and dangers are more frequent, and consequently tourists are becoming more aware of the necessity of a safe destination. Foreign tourists are educated in the spirit of touristic safety, and when choosing a particular destination, this aspect is of utmost importance. The image of the country or any touristic destination depends on the quality of the touristic products, which include not only the natural and cultural patrimony or the economic environment, but also the social and political climate, state order and citizens’ safety. A country with a good image for safe tourism can use it as a competitive advantage and attract different segments of the international tourism market. The paper presents some of the safety issues in tourism, focusing on the main aspects of tourism safety in Romania, based on the travel and tourism competitiveness index, with special focus on the third pillar – Safety and Security and the results of an on-line survey with managers and employees in tourism activities.

Volume X |

Development of Tourism in the Transalpine Area. Premises and Possibilities

Abstract: The paper highlights the premises of the revitalization process of tourism: the significance of the “Transalpine” area, its intersection with routes of intense mobility of the population, the numerous natural and anthropogenic elements and their outstanding tourist value, the high rate of anthropization and insertions in the mountainous area caused by a diverse economy specific to mountainous areas, the tourist accessibility to the area, etc. The extremely favorable natural premises, the anthropogenic, ethnographic and enthno-folkloric potential, as well as the development of the north-south and east-west routes facilitate development of tourism in the Transalpine mountainous area. We have highlighted some distinct features of certain tourist models. Thus, there are two ethno-folkloric areas, two main tourist axes (a transversal one and a longitudinal one) and secondary tourist axes (along the mountains summits) as well as two urban areas (Sebeş in the north and Novaci in the south) which attract and guide the tourist flow. The purpose of this approach is aimed at diminishing the transit tourism, as well as diminishing seasonal tourism through the diversification of tourism. This requires coherent national development strategy integrated in the regional context, inter-county joint projects, the involvement of local authorities and tourist agencies as well as substantial funding.

Volume X |

Planning Nature Conservation and Tourism Development in Cheile Turzii

Abstract: Biodiversity conservation appeared as a result of the uncontrolled man induced impact upon the environment. In order to protect vulnerable habitats, certain protection decisions and politics were adopted worldwide. Protected areas were created. For these areas to be viable in terms of biodiversity protection as well as to ensure local population’s welfare, economic activities and resource exploitation, tourism in particular, were integrated. Cheile Turzii is a deeply rural area, where two natural complex reservations exist: Cheile Turzii and Cheile Turenilor. Nevertheless, the status of protected area is not taken into consideration by the local population that has a subsistence living standard and exploits the reservations’ natural resources. Tourism, along with other environment friendly activities, may be the solution for developing this area. Therefore, a territorial planning action is needed for setting the protected zones, the exploitation zones and future development zones.