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Volume XIX |

Gross chemical analysis of the turf and podzolic soils on glacial deposits, laid by dense carbonate rocks

Abstract: Gross analysis allows us to reveal issues concerning the genesis of soils and to identify the peculiarities of elementary soil processes. The article summarizes the results of the study of gross chemical analysis of the turf and podzolic soils on alluvial and glacial deposits, laid by dense carbonate rocks. Features and relationships of oxides content in soils and soil-forming rocks are considered, that will make possible to justify important issues of the nature of these soils and to study the dependence of their natural properties with dense carbonate rocks.
It is established that oxides of silicon, ferum, aluminum and calcium form the basis of gross chemical composition of the turf and podzolic soils on alluvial and glacial deposits, laid by dense carbonate rocks. The maximum content of the first component is observed in the upper humus-eluvial horizon (90–94%), aluminum and ferum oxides – in iluvial accumulative horizons, where their content in total is 7–15%. Calcium oxide content in soil profile of studied soils, naturally increases from 0.36% in the upper horizons to 0.95% in the transitional, and in the laid carbonate rocks its content can reach up to 35%. This confirms the fact that laid carbonate rocks have a significant influence on the flow of all soil elementary processes, and gross analysis confirmed the presence of carbonates in the entire soil profile, which could not be determined during field or macromorphological studies. Oxides of alkaline-earth metals are mainly accumulated in the upper humus horizons of all soils, their content decreases down the profile. Potassium and phosphorus oxides, although pliable to washing, however are delayed in the soil and included in the biological cycle and partially fixed in secondary minerals. The content of biologically important components such as P2O5, MnO, S, N in the upper horizons of the studied soils is closely related to the accumulation of humus.

Volume XVIII |

Hydro-ecological investigation of the Lazeshchyna River in Transcarpathian region of Ukraine

Abstract: This paper focuses on the hydro-biological and hydro-chemical analysis of the Lazeshchyna River, one of the tributaries of the Tisza River from the cross-border territory within Rakhiv area of Ukraine’s Transcarpathian region. For this purpose, we used the results of route survey, hydro-biological and hydro-chemical analysis of the Lazeshchyna River surface water samples, which were collected forhydrochemical studies in 2017-2018. On the basis of water sampling we thoroughly analyzed the hydro-chemical water quality indicators of Lazeshchyna River according to the following groups of indicators: physic and chemical features, organic matter, water mineralization, major ions, nutrients, trace elements and specific pollutants. Hydrobiological studies were conducted in 2015-2016. Based on them, the water quality was assessed according to the Trent Biotic Index bioindication. The ratio of actual and maximum permissible concentration (MPC) hydro-chemical parameters are investigated, moreover we pointed out the seasonality in the ratio of water consumption and concentration of individual indicators. The study underlines the role of natural and anthropogenic factors for the Lazeshchyna River water quality.