Local labour markets and mobility in Spain 2001-2011
Abstract: The aim of this paper is to analyse the changes of Local Labour Markets (LLM) in Spain from 2001 to 2011 of 11 population subgroups (gender, 4 activities, 4 sectors and general population). An algorithmic iterative process with N-1 steps is used to examine commuting data for the 11 subgroups and to trace LLM in both years by maximising the self-containment of jobs (number of jobs occupied by residents of the area and number of residents working in the same area) of the generated areas. Four indexes are calculated for each LLM, and the variation of these four indexes between 2001 and 2011 allows us to classify them as areas that change from areas with a surplus of jobs to deficit areas, or vice versa. The evidence indicates an increase in mobility, difference in the rates of mobility according to subgroup characteristics, and the conversion of surplus markets in employment to deficit markets. These trends give way to wider functional areas and lower levels of self-containment reflected in the length of the journey to work. This impacts quality of life, social cohesion, and the sustainability of the territories.