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Volume XVI |

The impact of the urban expansion on the Jiu floodplain. Case study –Craiova, Romania

Abstract: The urban expansion of any settlement implies changing natural environment and gradually transforming it into an anthropogenic one to assure the needs of the community. A first step in urban planning is to identify the changes that have been made, and this study reconstructs the anthropogenic changes induced to the Jiu floodplain in the last 150 years, through multi-temporal spatial comparisons, geomorphological characteristics and anthropological and environmental transformation indicators. The processing of historical cartographic materials and current satellite imagery highlights the dynamics of the wetlands and the built-up area in the Jiu floodplain between 1864 and 2017. The urban expansion required flood protection works that were carried out along the canals and lakes resulting from the drainage of the ponds and marshlands. On the course of the Jiu hydro-technical works of straightening, embankment and regularization were achieved, which led to the transformation of the course from a highly meandered one as it was in the second half of the 19th century into a sinuous one in 2017. The study is a useful tool in urban planning, by centralizing the changes in the floodplain, the anthropogenic works carried out and the changes of the Jiu course within the analyzed sector.

Volume XV |

Spatial and temporal dynamics of human pressure within the Preajba catchment area, Romania

Abstract: This study refers to the spatio-temporal dynamics of human pressure in Preajba basin, located in the southeastern part of Craiova municipality. The statistic and cartographic analysis is based on the determination of a variety of environmental indices: index of human pressure by demographic dynamics, index of human stress through agricultural land use, naturality index, artificialization index and environmental change index. Choosing a grid of 1.5 sqkm for calculating and comparing the artificialization index of the landscape allows a concise analysis on the environmental transformation in the above-mentioned area. Complementary, temporal dynamics of the environmental indices values is highlighted by the choice of some benchmark years, i.e. 1992, 2002, 2012, 2014 to which data and recent cartographic materials from 2009 and 2014 are added. Results, materialized in the obtained values present the state of the environment and the human pressure implications on the Preajba lacustrine ecosystem (maximum values obtained at period level): physiological or agrarian density – 52 inhabitants/ha in 1992 (Craiova); human pressure index through arable – 1.4 ha/inhabitants in 1992 and 2002 (Malu Mare); naturality index of the landscape – 9.43 in 1992 (Malu Mare); environmental change index – 3.69 in 2012 (Coşoveni). Field campaigns conducted in 2015 and 2016 confirm the research results and visually support human pressure on the environment. The proposed measures, in order to stabilize and maintain the good environmental quality in the Preajba basin targets the lacustrine ecosystem by involving local authorities in order to protect the avi-faunistic natural area status of “Preajba-Făcăi Lacustrine Complex”.