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Volume XIV |

Snow avalanche tracks mapping within Bâlea glacial valley (the Făgăraș Mountains) using semi-automated detection methods

Abstract: Mapping of snow avalanche tracks based on topographic maps, aerophotos and field data to achieve inventories for the whole mountaineous areas in Romania is an important step in snow avalanche risk assessment and other related geomorphic processes. This requires experience and it is a time consuming process. In the absence of field data, the process of snow avalanche tracks mapping is influenced by the subjectivity of those who digitize.
Thus, we propose a semi-automated method for detection of snow avalanche tracks based mainly on geomorphometric parameters that can be extracted from the Digital Elevation Model (DEM) like slope gradient, plan and profile curvature, mean curvature, runoff.
In this study we used an object based analysis to detect snow avalanche tracks in central part of the Făgăraș Mts. This approach has two steps, segmentation and classification. First, we segmented the area based on plan curvature (which is the most important parameter that describes these snow avalanche tracks) in order to obtain objects. In the process of classification we added other conditions such as fuzzy function for slope gradient, thresholds for altitude and runoff and a shape index of objects. The results obtained were very close to the mapped tracks using digitizing techniques. The maps resulted from the classification were compared to the those resulted from digitizing in both number of objects and spatial agreement of the class of objects. There was a very good fit in case of the number of objects and total area of objects. The method could be improved if we apply on high resolution DEMs and also on more case studies with different topography and existing vector database.

Volume XI |

Patterns of winter tourism activity in the Bucegi Mountains – the Prahova Valley (the Southern Carpathians)

Abstract: The Bucegi Mountains and the Prahova Valley represent the most important destinations for winter tourism activities, of great heritage value in the Southern Carpathians – Romanian Carpathians. A number of resorts have developed here over time, currently enjoying great popularity among those keen on such activities. This article aims at presenting, on the one hand, the natural features (terrain factors and climate variables) favourable for winter tourism activities, and on the other, our results concerning the statistical analysis of the accommodation infrastructure, ski amenities and tourist flow. The expansion of the ski area and the development perspectives of the existing infrastructure as much as the local, regional and national authorities’ interest represent the premises for hosting the winter edition of the European Youth Olympic Festival, in 2013 and the Winter Olympic Games in the year 2020 in the outlined area.

Volume X |

Features of the Ski Area from the Romanian Banat

Abstract: The Romanian Banat is endowed with an important mountain area composed of the Banatului Mountains and the north-western part of the Retezeat-Godeanu Range, i.e. Ţarcu – Muntele Mic. The purpose of our paper is to make an account of the features of the two important ski areas within this mountain area: Ţarcu – Muntele Mic and Semenic. Their structure evolved over time according to the local and regional interest, but also due to more recent activities of the Romanian investors. Our research concluded that both ski domains have a great natural potential to sustain winter-sports and to further develop what today are two very small resorts. They have a low capability of attraction due to the small capacity of the pistes and to the fact that each resort has only two ski-lifts. In both cases the access is rather limited and as far as accommodation is concerned in both cases it is disproportional in relation with the provisioned capacity of the ski pistes. Having these aspects in view, we conclude that these resorts do not represent as yet a major attraction, especially due to the fact that there are undercapitalized and underdeveloped for the raising demand of the regional market for winter-sports. On the other hand in both cases projects have already been blue-printed by the aforementioned investors which are waiting to be undertaken for development.

Volume IX |

The Use of the Digital Terrain Model in Analyzing the Natural Potential of the Muntele Mic – Poiana Mărului – Ţarcu Mountains Tourist Area to Extend and Plan the Ski Domain

Abstract: The present study aims at examining the natural potential of the region as a prerequisite for the planning and the expansion of the ski domain, in order to reinvigorate the resorts Muntele Mic and Poiana Mărului. The factors taken into account to identify the best areas for planning new ski tracks are: the altitude, the slope, the orientation of the slopes to the solar radiation, the duration and the thickness of the snow layer, the land use, the risk of snow avalanches occurrence and the degree of accessibility. Because the factors considered don’t have the same importance for the favorability, before the combination of the factors, we used the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) implemented by the IDRISI Andes software to assign for each factor a relative weight to use in the analysis. The risk of snow avalanches occurrence was considered as restrictive factor (Boolean factor). The combination of factors by Weight of Evidence method resulted in the creation of the final model, which presents the probability map for new ski tracks. The probability degree varies continuously in space, from a very high probability (255) to a very low probability (0) depending on the combination mode in a certain area of the considered factors and their weight. We considered as optimal areas only the areas with values above 200. The best areas to expand the ski domain are the detached secondary peaks of Muntele Mic towards north and the northern slopes of the Nedeia Ridge. These areas could allow for the development of certain ski tracks at least the same size as the ones of the Prahova Valley. The development of the ski domain in these areas will connect the two resorts, Muntele Mic and Poiana Mărului, and could increase the touristic potential of the study area.

Volume VIII |

The Present-Day Erosional Processes in the Alpine Level of the Bucegi Mountains – Southern Carpathians

Abstract: A relief that is strongly modelled by extensive erosion processes (sheet erosion, rills and gullies) characterizes the Alpine level of the Bucegi Mountains. All processes are favoured by the geological structure represented by conglomerates, limestone with grit stone intrusions, by strongly degraded podzolic soils with a loamy-sandy texture in the first layer and by some economic activities, such as the overgrazing and the tourism. We have identified an area with large-scale erosion forms in the sector comprised between Furnica Peak and Piatra Arsa Peak. This paper analyses the genesis and the manifestation conditions of the erosion processes, as well as the climate, making use of the temperature and the precipitation data provided by the meteorological stations in the region. Using the Péltier diagram, we framed the region to various seasons. By subsequently using the Péguy diagram, we framed the region to the morphoclimatic conditions and to the river processes. On the other hand, by using GIS, we created geology, slope, soil and vegetation Boolean maps and then the risk map to the erosion processes.