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Volume XVII |

Playing with water – An introduction to experimental hydrology

Abstract: Water is the most important resource for the humankind, thus understanding hydrological processes could be con-sidered a vital task. Therefore, the main aims of this papers are to assess: (i) the current status of hydrologic field ex-periments; (ii) the techniques and the stages of the field hydrologic experiments at the microscale/plot-scale. Microscale hydrological studies are important both socially and economically as they emphasize the role of key factors (e.g. slope) in the utilization of water resources, the identification of critical hydrological thresholds for mobilizing, the propagation of soil particles in water flows and also the time it takes for pesticides, nutrients, and heavy metals to be mobilized. The key to conducting a successful hydrological microscale experiment lies in performing repeated attempts in the field. From an economic point of view, expedition (temporary) hydrologic field experiments are beneficial, as they shorten the working period and reduce the financial costs of the data acquisition process.
One of the challenges of experimental hydrology is the manipulation of “upscaling” or the statistical approach taken towards gathering and processing data.

Volume XIII |

Research of water balance at hydrological micro-scale in the Aldeni experimental basin (Romania)

Abstract: The paper presents a number of aspects regarding the Aldeni Experimental Basin (Romania). In order to experimentally investigate micro-scale (plot scale) hydrological impact of soil erosion, the National Institute of Hydrology and Water Management founded, in 1984, the Aldeni Experimental Basin (AEB). AEB is located in the Curvature Subcarpathians, a region characterized by a sharp erosion of soil. Experimental investigations at a micro-scale are aimed towards: determining the parameters of the water balance equation, during natural and simulated rainfall; researching of runoff genetic and soil erosion processes on runoff plots; extrapolating relations involving runoff coefficients from a micro-scale to meso-scale.
Runoff plots have A = 80 sq m (20 x 4m), WNV-ESE aspect and an average slope of 5.6%; one runoff plot is maintained with grass, and the other is devoid of grass by digging (processing) and the structure of the first horizon with a depth of 20 cm has been changed, which resulted in a greater development of infiltration than in the first runoff plot. Complex measurements and sampling observations of the necessary elements for the quantitative estimation of the water balance equation are achieved with the help of specific equipment on standard climatologic and hydrological time (hourly and pentads) at hydrometric stations and meteorological platform, while at runoff plots scale per rainfall event.
Nowadays, the latest evolutions in data acquisition and transmission equipment are represented by sensors (such as sensors to measure the soil moisture). Exploitation and dissemination of hydrologic data is accomplished by: research themes/projects, yearbooks of basic data (Experimental Basins Yearbook) and scientific papers.