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Volume XVI |

Delineation of rural-urban fringe: a case study of Aligarh city

Abstract: Cities are dependent on their surroundings for their existence and growth. Having a rapidly increasing population, a city needs a huge amount of agricultural products for its sustenance. To a considerable extent, it depends on countryside for the supply of vegetables, milk, food-grains, fruits and labour. These commodities are not only brought from immediate surroundings but also from hundreds of miles away. Thus, the city covers a huge area of surroundings for getting their agricultural products. The frequency and intensity of services depends on linkages in terms of distance of a city with its countryside and the available nature of transport and communication. The characteristics and socio-economic development of a fringe differ from that of another. People do their recurring commuting to perform their daily activities and jobs from the margins of a city to its central part, where their offices and institutions are generally located. The villagers also travel daily to cater their socio-economic needs to neighboring towns and cities. Thus, cities work as centres of gravity for socio-economic, cultural and administrative activities which are truly representative of the countryside.

Aligarh city performs a variety of functions. It provides a number of services to its countryside i.e., health services, educational services, banking services and bus services and in return of which it receives some services from its surrounding areas i.e., supply of agricultural products and daily labour. The information on the basis of which the fringe zones has been delimited, have been collected through surveys and records maintained by the colleges and schools, telephone offices, commuters’ assembling points, banks, mandis and milk collection points. The five sets of determinants for delineating the rural urban fringe of the Aligarh city are spatial, economic services, occupational structure and demographic and housing character. Our main conclusion is that the expansion of the city mainly has a north and north-east direction, especially along bypass and national highways.

Volume XIV |

Changing dimensions of literacy scenario and their determinants in India: a geographical perspective

Abstract: The present study is attempted under four points. The first point discusses the regional trends and patterns of literacy rate by decades since 1951. The second examines the trends of literacy rate by inter-states and union territories in the study area during 1951-2011. The third observes the distribution pattern and male-female literacy differentials during 2011, while the fourth explains the factors which influence the literacy level in the study area. The study reveals that the total literacy of India increased from 18.33 per cent to 73.00 from 1951 to 2011. All the states showed positive growth in literacy rate, especially Kerala (93.91 per cent) and Mizoram (91.58 per cent) having the highest growth. The male (96.1 per cent) and female (92.1 per cent) literacy was found to be the highest in Kerala (96.1per cent). The present study concludes that lower gross enrolment ratio and high dropout rates are chief determinants of literacy in the study area. The study is based upon suitable statistical techniques to analyze the data. Finally, some suggestions have been given to enhance the level of literacy rate that may result into positive socio-cultural transformation.