Abstract: In the years that followed 1990, the mining regions from Eastern Europe addressed the same challenges: massive industrial closure, loss of traditional markets, high unemployment, price inflation and dramatic decrease in living standards. The authorities have promoted policies of economic and social development, in order to improve the areas seriously affected by industrial and mining decay, called “disadvantaged areas”. The disadvantaged mining communities from Bihor strongly anchored in historic mining activities, had to face a process of economic conversion, through the implementation of the socio-economic measures, hoping for sustainable regional development of those communities. The paper presents aspects from the history of mining activities in Bihor County, examining several social aspects of mines closure from these disadvantaged areas. The results of the study show that mine closures cause demographic changes, industry closing together with the disappearance of vital jobs, leading to population loss.